Materi Structure (1)

December 10, 2009 at 6:18 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Simple Present or Present Continuous?

Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense.

1 Cuckoos (not build) nests. They (use) the nests of other birds.
2 You can’t see Tom now: he (have) a bath.
3 He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea.
4 What she (do) in the evenings? ~
She usually (play) cards or (watch) TV.
5 I won’t go out now as it (rain) and I -(not have) an umbrella.
6 The last train (leave) the station at 11.30.
7 He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him.
8 Ann (make) a dress for herself at the moment. She (make) all her
own clothes.
9 Hardly anyone (wear) a hat nowadays.
10 I’m afraid I’ve broken one of your coffee cups. —
Don’t worry. I (not like) that set anyway.
11 I (wear) my sunglasses today because the sun is very strong.
12 Tom can’t have the newspaper now because his aunt (read) it.
13 I’m busy at the moment. I (redecorate) the sitting room.
14 The kettle (boil) now. Shall I make the tea?
15 You (enjoy) yourself or would you like to leave now? -
I (enjoy) myself very much. I (want) to stay to the end.
16 How you (get) to work as a rule? ~
I usually (go) by bus but tomorrow I (go) in Tom’s car.
17 Why you (put) on your coat? ~
I (go) for a walk. You (come) with me?-
Yes, I’d love to come. You (mind) if I bring my dog?
18 How much you (owe) him?-
I (owe) him Ј5. ~
You (intend) to pay him?
19 You (belong) to your local library? -
Yes, I do. -
You (read) a lot?-
Yes, quite a lot. -
How often you (change) your books? —
I (change) one every day.
20 Mary usually (learn) languages very quickly but she (not seem) able
to learn modern Greek.
21 I always (buy) lottery tickets but I never (win) anything.
22 You (like) this necklace? I (give) it to my daughter for her birthday
23 I won’t tell you my secret unless you (promise) not to tell anyone. -
I (promise).
24 You always (write) with your left hand?
25 You (love) him?-
No, I (like) him very much but I (not love) him.
26 You (dream) at night?-
Yes, I always (dream) and if I (eat) too much supper I (have)
27 The milk (smell) sour. You (keep) milk a long time?
28 These workmen are never satisfied; they always (complain).
29 We (use) this room today because the window in the other room is
30 He always (say) that he will mend the window but he never (do) it.
31 You (know) why an apple (fall) down and not up?
32 You (write) to him tonight? -
Yes, I always (write) to him on his birthday. You (want) to send any
33 Tom and Mr Pitt (have) a long conversation. I (wonder) what they
(talk) about.
34 You (believe) all that the newspapers say?-
No, I (not believe) any of it. ~
Then why you (read) newspapers?
35 This car (make) a very strange noise. You (think) it is all right?-
Oh, that noise (not matter). It always (make) a noise like that.
36 The fire (smoke) horribly. I can’t see across the room. -
I (expect) that birds (build) a nest in the chimney. -
Why you (not put) wire across the tops of your chimneys? -
Tom (do) that sometimes but it (not seem) to make any difference.

1 don’t build, use 2 is having 3 drinks, is drinking 4 does she do, plays, watches 5 is raining, haven’t 6 leaves 7 speaks, don’t understand 8 is making, makes
9 wears 10 don’t like 11 am wearing 12 is reading 13 am redecorating 14 is boiling 15 are you enjoying, am enjoying, want 16 do you get, go, am going 17 are you putting, am going, are you coming, do you mind 18 do you owe, I owe, do you intend 19 do you belong, do you read, do you change, I change 20 learns, doesn’t seem 21 always buy/am always buying, win 22 do you like, am giving 23 promise, promise 24 do you always write 25 do you love, like, don’t love 26 do you dream, dream, eat, have 27 smells, do you
keep 28 are always complaining/always complain 29 are using 30 is always saying/always says, does 31 do you know, falls 32 are you writing, write, do you want 33 are having, wonder, are talking 34 do you believe, don’t believe, do you read 35 is making, do you
think, doesn’t matter, makes 36 is smoking, expect, are building, does, doesn’t seem, don’t you put

Simple Present or Present Continuous?

Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or present continuous tense.

1 What Tom (think) of the Budget? -
He (think) it most unfair. ~
I (agree) with him.
2 What this one (cost)?-
It (cost) forty pence.
3 You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very strongly tonight.
4 You (see) my car keys anywhere? -
No, I (look) for them but I (not see) them.
5 He never (listen) to what you say. He always (think) about something else.
6 This book is about a man who (desert) his family and (go) to live on a Pacific island.
7 You (understand) what the lecturer is saying? ~
No, I (not understand) him at all.
8 What you (have) for breakfast usually? ~
I usually (eat) a carrot and (drink) a glass of cold water.
9 When the curtain (rise) we (see) a group of workers. They (picket) factory gate.
10 Why you (walk) so fast today? You usually (walk) quite slowly. ~
I (hurry) because I (meet) my mother at 4 o’clock and she (not like) to be kept waiting.
11 I (wish) that dog would lie down. He (keep) jumping up on my lap. ~
I (think) he (want) to go for a walk.
12 You (recognize) that man? ~
I (think) that I have seen him before but I (not remember) his name
13 Look at that crowd. I (wonder) what they (wait) for.
14 This message has just arrived and the man (wait) in case you (want) to send a reply.
15 Stop! You (not see) the notice? ~
I (see) it but I can’t read it because I (not wear) my glasses. What it (say)? ~
It (say) ‘These premises are patrolled by guard dogs’.
16 She always (borrow) from me and she never (remember) to pay me back.
17 You (need) another blanket or you (feel) warm enough?
18 It (save) time if you (take) the path through the wood? ~
No, it (not matter) which path you take.
19 I (save) up because I (go) abroad in July.
20 I (think) it is a pity you don’t take more exercise. You (get) fat.
21 The plane that you (look) at now just (take) off for Paris,
22 Tom never (do) any work in the garden; he always (work) on his car.
23 What he (do) to his car now? ~
I (think) he (polish) it.
24 That film (come) to the local cinema next week. You (want) to see it?
25 How Peter (get) on at school? ~
Very well. He (seem) to like the life.
26 Why Mrs Pitt (look) so angry? ~
Mr Pitt (smoke) a cigarette and (drop) the ash on the carpet.
27 This is our itinerary. We (leave) home on the 8th, (arrive) in Paris on the 9th, (spend) the day in Paris, and (set) out that night for Venice. ~
That (sound) most interesting. You must tell me all about it when you (get) back.
28 This story is about a boy who (make) friends with a snake which he (find) in his garden. Then he (go) away but he (not forget) the snake and some years later he (return) and (look) for it.
29 He (find) the snake who (recognize) its old friend and (coil) round him affectionately. But, unfortunately, the snake is by now a full-grown boa-constrictor and its embrace (kill) the poor boy.
30 The snake (feel) sorry about this?-
I (not know). The story (end) there.
31 How you (end) a letter that (begin), ‘Dear Sir’? ~
I always (put), ‘Yours truly’, but Tom (prefer) ‘Yours faithfully’.
32 What the word ‘catastrophe’ (mean)? ~
It (mean) ‘disaster’.
33 What you (wait) for?-
I (wait) for the shop to open. -
But it (not open) till 9.00. -
I (know) but I (want) to be early, as their sale (start) today.
34 Why you (smoke) a cigar, Mrs Pitt? You (not smoke) cigars as a rule. ~
I (smoke) it because I (want) the ash. This book (say) that cigar ash mixed with oil
(remove) heat stains from wood.
35 Who (own) this umbrella? ~
I (not know). Everybody (use) it but nobody (know) who (own) it.
36 You (mind) if I (ask) you a question? ~
That (depend) on the question. ~
It (concern) your brother. ~
I (refuse) to answer any question about my brother.

1 does Tom think, thinks, agree 2 does this one cost, it costs 3 do you hear, is blowing 4 do you see, am looking, don’t see 5 listens, is always thinking 6 deserts, goes
7 do you understand, don’t understand 8 do you have, eat, drink 9 rises, see, are picketing 10 are you walking, walk, am hurrying, am meeting, doesn’t like II wish, keeps, think, wants 12 do you recognize, think, don’t remember 13 wonder, waiting for 14 is waiting, want 15 don’t you see, see, am not wearing, does it say, says 16 is always borrowing/always borrows, remembers 17 do you need, do you feel 18 does it save, take, doesn’t matter 19 am saving, am going 20 think, are getting 21 are looking, is just taking 22 does, is always working 23 is he doing, think, is polishing 24 is coming, do you want 25 is Peter getting on, seems 26 is Mrs Pitt looking/does Mrs Pitt look, is smoking, and (is) dropping 27 leave, arrive, spend, set, sounds, get 28 makes, finds, goes, does not forget, returns, looks 29 finds, recognizes, coils, kills 30 does the snake feel, don’t
know, ends 31 do you end, begins, put, prefers 32 does the word ‘catastrophe’ mean, means 33 are you waiting, am waiting, doesn’t open, know, want, starts/is starting 34 are you smoking, don’t smoke, am smoking, want, says, removes 35 owns, don’t know, uses,
knows, owns 36 do you mind, ask, depends, concerns, refuse

Be going to or Present Continuous?

Planned future actions can be expressed by the present continuous tense with a time expression or by the be going to form with or without a time expression. The present continuous is mainly used for very definite arrangements in the near future. The be going to form can be used more widely.
Use the present continuous where possible in the following sentences and put the remaining verbs into the be going to form.

1 I (play) bridge tonight with Tom and Ann.
2 He (have) an operation next week.
3 It’s very cold. I (light) a fire.
4 We (have) some friends to lunch tomorrow.
5 I’ve bought a piano; it (be) delivered this afternoon. ~
Where you (put) it? ~
I (put) it in the dining room.
6 You (go) to the auction tomorrow? ~
Yes, I (go) but I (not buy) anything.
7 I’ve reminded you once; I (not do) it again.
8 I (have) my hair cut this afternoon.
9 My nephew (come) to stay with me next weekend. ~
Where you (put) him? ~
I (put) him in the room in the tower.
10 Our class (start) German next term.
11 I (spend) a few days in London next week.
12 The Town Council (build) a new school here.
13 What you (tell) the police? ~
I (tell) them the truth.
14 He (start) tomorrow.
15 The Queen (open) Parliament next month.
16 The Prime Minister (speak) on TV tonight.
17 This shop (close) down next week.
18 When you (have) your next lesson? ~
I (have) it on Monday.
19 I (collect) my new dress this afternoon.
20 We (take) the children to the seaside this summer.
21 I (give) him a football for his next birthday.
22 She (sing) in her first big concert next month.
He (go) to Spain for his holidays. ~
He (fly)? ~
No, he (go) by boat.
24 She (see) a specialist next week.
25 He (wash) the car?
26 He (ring) me up tonight.
27 The inspector (ask) you a few questions.
28 Her parents (give) a party for her next month. They (invite) sixty guests.
29 Have you got a ticket for the big match on Saturday? ~
No, I don’t even know who (play). ~
France (play) England.
30 They (launch) a ship this afternoon. You (come) to see it?
31 What you (do) with the money?
32 I (pick) you up at 6.30; don’t forget.
33 Where you (go) tonight? ~
I (go) out with Peter. He (call) for me at eight.
34 I (compete) in the bicycle race tomorrow.
35 Mr Pitt has just phoned to say that he (not come) back till Wednesday night.
36 I (read) you his answer to my letter of complaint.

be going to is possible in all these sentences, but where the present continuous tense is given in the key, that is the better one to use.)

1 am playing 2 is having 3 am going to light 4 are having 5 is being, are you putting, am putting 6 are you going, am going, am not buying/am not going to buy 7 am not going to do Sam having 9 is coming, are you putting, am putting 10 is starting II am spending
12 is going to build 13 are you going to tell, am going to tell 14 is starting 15 is opening 16 is speaking 17 is closing 18 are you having, am having 19 am collecting 20 are taking 21 am giving 22 is singing 23 is going, is he flying, is going 24 is seeing 25 is he going to wash 26 is ringing 27 is going to ask 28 are giving, are inviting 29 is playing, is playing
30 are launching, are you coming 31 are you going to do 32 am picking 33 are you going, am going, is calling 34 am competing 35 isn’t coming 36 am going to read

Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous?

Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense.
(In some cases either could be used.)
1 We (walk) ten kilometres.
2 We (walk) for three hours.
3 You (walk) too fast. That’s why you are tired.
4 I (make) sausage rolls for the party all the morning.
5 How many you (make)? ~
I (make) 200.
6 That boy (eat) seven ice-creams.
7 He (not stop) eating since he arrived.
8 The driver (drink). I think someone else ought to drive.
9 I (pull) up 100 dandelions.
10 I (pull) up dandelions all day.
11 What you (do)? ~
We (pick) apples.
12 How many you (pick)? ~
We (pick) ten basketfuls.
13 I (sleep) on every bed in this house and I don’t like any of them.
14 He (sleep) since ten o’clock. It’s time he woke up.
15 He (ride); that’s why he is wearing breeches.
16 I (ride) all the horses in this stable.
17 What a lovely smell! ~
Mary (make) jam.
18 The students (work) very well this term.
19 I only (hear) from him twice since he went away.
20 I (hear) from her regularly. She is a very good correspondent.
21 I (grease) my car. That’s why my hands are so dirty.
22 I (polish) this table all the morning and she isn’t satisfied with it yet.
23 I (work) for him for ten years and he never once (say) ‘Good morning’ to me.
24 He (teach) in this school for five years.
25 I (teach) hundreds of students but I never (meet) such a hopeless class as this.
26 Why you (be) so long in the garage? ~
The tyres were flat; I (pump) them up.
27 I (pump) up three tyres. Would you like to do the fourth?
28 I (look) for mushrooms but I (not find) any.
29 He (cough) a lot lately. He ought to give up smoking.
30 You (hear) the news? Tom and Ann are engaged! ~
That’s not new; I (know) it for ages!
31 I (try) to finish this letter for the last half-hour. I wish you’d go away or stop talking. ~
I hardly (say) anything.
32 The driver of that car (sound) his horn for the last ten minutes.
33 It (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the match (be) postponed.
34 He (hope) for a rise in salary for six months but he (not dare) to ask for it yet.
35 Mr Smith, you (whisper) to the student on your right for the last five minutes. You (help) him with his exam paper or he (help) you?
36 Why you (make) such a horrible noise? ~
I (lose) my key and I (try) to wake my wife by throwing stones at he window. ~
You (throw) stones at the wrong window. You live next door.

1 have walked 2 have been walking/have walked 3 have been walking/have walked 4 have been making 5 have you made, have made 6 has eaten 7 hasn’t stopped
8 has been drinking 9 have pulled 10 have been pulling 11 have you been doing, have been picking 12 have you picked, have picked 13 have slept 14 has been sleeping/has slept
15 has been riding 16 have ridden 17 has been making 18 have been working/have worked
19 have heard 20 have been hearing/have heard 21 have been greasing 22 have been polishing 23 have been working/have worked, has never said 24 has been teaching/has taught 25 have taught, have never met 26 have you been, have been pumping/have
pumped 27 have pumped 28 have been looking/have looked, haven’t found 29 has been coughing/has coughed 30 have you heard, have known 31 have been trying, have said
32 has been sounding 33 has been raining/has rained, has been postponed 34 has been hoping, hasn’t dared 35 have been whispering, have you been helping, has he been helping 36 have you been making, have lost, have been trying, have been throwing

Future, Present or Present Perfect?

The future perfect tense is not used in time clauses, the present perfect being used instead.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, using the future, present, or present perfect.

1 When we (take) our exam we’ll have a holiday.
2 When I (finish) the book I’ll lend it to you.
3 When we (have) our injections I expect we’ll feel awful.
4 When I (be) here for a year I’ll ask for a rise.
5 When Tom (go) I’ll tell you a secret.
6 By the time he (get) back from his holiday the milkman will have left twenty-one bottles of milk outside his door.
7 Don’t drive at more than 50 k.p.h. till your car (do) 4,000 kilometres.
8 When you (do) 4,000 kilometres you can drive it at 70 k.p.h.
9 When you open the safe you (see) a small black box.
10 When we (have) lunch we’ll go for a walk.
11 When the bell rings I (take) the meat out of the oven.
12 I’ll bolt all the doors before I (go) to bed.
13 When we (see) the cathedral we’ll go to the museum.
14 We’ll have to stay up this tree till the bull (go) away.
15 He (not let) you out till you have finished your homework.
16 As soon as I hear from him I (let) you know.
17 My father will be furious when he (see) what you have done.
18 You (not hear) the sound of the explosion till after you have seen the flash.
19 These gates will remain shut until the train (pass).
20 When he (sell) all his newspapers he’ll go home.
21 We can’t have a fire here until we (sweep) the chimney.
22 You (get) a shock when you open that box.
23 When you are eighteen your father (give) you a latchkey.
24 Don’t jump out of the aeroplane until the pilot (say) ‘Go!’
25 I can’t leave the country till the police (return) my passport.
26 When a bottle of champagne (be) opened for twenty-four hours the wine is not fit
to drink.
27 Hotel receptionist: When you (sign) the hotel register the porter will show you
your room.
28 You (not know) how good oysters are till you have tasted one.
29 That road will not be safe till the floods (subside).
30 When everybody (leave) the park the park-keeper will lock the gates.
31 When we have seen the Chamber of Horrors we (have) a cup of tea.
32 When you (have) something to eat you’ll feel better.
33 I (stay) in court till the jury returns.
34 You cannot become a member of this club until you (make) a parachute descent.
35 When the boa constrictor (eat) the goat he will become very lethargic.
36 As soon as everybody has gone to bed the mice (come) out of their holes.

(Contractions may be used.)
1 have taken 2 have finished/finish 3 have had 4 have been 5 goes/has gone 6 gets/has got 7 has done 8 have done 9 will see 10 have had 11 shall/will take 12 go 13 have seen
14 goes/has gone 15 won’t let 16 shall/will let 17 sees 18 won’t hear 19 has passed/passes 20 has sold 21 have swept/sweep 22 will get 23 will give 24 says 25 have returned/return 26 has been 27 have signed 28 won’t know 29 have subsided/subside 30 has left
31 shall/will have 32 have had 33 shall/will stay 34 have made 35 has eaten 36 will come/come

Present or Future?

The future simple is not used in time clauses, the simple present tense being used instead.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (present or future).

1 When he (return) I’ll give him the key.
2 He’ll be ready as soon as you (be).
3 I’ll stay in bed till the clock (strike) seven.
4 She will be delighted when she (hear) this.
5 When the laundry comes I (have) some clean handkerchiefs.
6 I shan’t buy tomatoes till the price (come) down.
7 Stay here till the lights (turn) green.
8 When it (get) cold I’ll light the fire.
9 The lift (not start) until you press that button.
10 She’ll have to behave better when she (go) to school.
11 When you look at yourself in the glass you (see) what I mean.
12 He (be) here before you go.
13 I (lend) you my cassette recorder whenever you want it.
14 He (wake) up when we turn the lights on. ,
15 He (ring) us up when he arrives in England?
16 He will wash up before he (go) to bed.
17 I won’t come to London till the bus strike (be) over.
18 I (give) the children their dinner before he (come) home.
19 They will be astonished when they (see) how slowly he works.
20 I’ll pay you when I (get) my cheque.
21 I (go) on doing it until he tells me to stop.
22 I’ll buy that house when I (have) enough money.
23 You (fall) rapidly through the air till your parachute opens.
24 We’ll have to stay here till the tide (go) out.
25 When the Queen (arrive) the audience will stand up.
26 When the fog (lift) we’ll be able to see where we are.
27 The refrigerator (go on) making that noise till we have it repaired.
28 As soon as the holidays begin this beach (become) very crowded.
29 The car (not move) till you take the brake off.
30 The alarm bell (go on) ringing till you press this button.
31 As soon as she (learn) to type I’ll get her a job.
32 Look before you (leap). (proverb)
33 We (have) to stay on this desert island till we can repair our boat.
34 Don’t count on a salary increase before you actually (get) it.
35 When winter (begin) the swallows will fly away to a warmer country.
36 We can’t make any decision till he (arrive) here.

(will and shall may be contracted.)
1 returns 2 are 3 strikes 4 hears 5 shall/will have 6 comes 7 turn 8 gets 9 won’t start
10 goes 11 will see 12 will be 13 shall/will lend 14 will wake 15 will he ring 16 goes 17 is
18 shall/will give, comes 19 see 20 get 21 shall/will go 22 have 23 will fall 24 goes
25 arrives 26 lifts 27 will go on 28 will become 29 won’t move 30 will goon 31 learns 32 leap 33 shall/will have 34 get 35 begins 36 arrives

Present Perfect or Simple Past?

(a) Fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary used in the question, putting it into the negative where necessary.
(b) Put the verb in brackets into the present perfect or the simple past tense.

Have you seen that play? (a) Yes, I . . .
Yes, I have.
(b) Yes, I (be) there last night.
Yes, I was there last night.

1 Have you wound the clock? (a) Yes, I . . .
(b) Yes, I (wind) it on Monda
2 Have you ever eaten snails? (a) No, I . . .
(b) Yes, I (eat) some at Tom’s party last week.
3 Has she fed the dog? (a) Yes, I think she . . .
(b) Yes, she (feed) him before lunch.
4 Have they repaired the road? (a) No, they . . .
(b) They only (repair) part of it so far.

5 Have they done their homework? (a) Yes, they (do) it all.
(b) Yes, they (do) it before they left school.
6 Have you found the matches? (a) No, I . . .
(b) No, I (not find) them yet.
7 Have you made the coffee? (a) Yes, I …
(b) I (make) some yesterday: we can use that.
8 Have you been here before? (a) No, I …
(b) Yes, I (be) here several times.
9 Have you seen him lately? (a) No, I . . .
(b) No, I (not see) him since Christmas.
10 Have you been to the opera this (a) Yes, I . . .
(b) Yes, I (go) to Faust on Friday.
11 Have you ever driven this car? (a) Yes, I (drive) it once or twice.
(b) Yes, I (drive) it when you were away.
12 Has he missed his train? (a) No, he ….
(b) Yes, he . . . It (go) five minutes ago.
13 Have they been through
Customs? (a) Yes, they . . .
(b) Yes, their luggage (be) examined at Dover.
14 Hashe spoken to her? (a) Yes, he . . .
(b) Yes, he (speak) to her on Friday.
15 Have you spent all your money? (a) No, I only (spend) half of it.
(b) Yes, 1…
16 How much have you saved (a) I (not save) anything.
since Christmas? (b) I (save) Ј3.
17 Has his temperature gone down? (a) No, it . . .
(b) Yes, it (go) down last night.
18 Have you seen his garden? (a) No, I (not see) it yet.
(b) I (see) the house on Monday but I (not see)
the garden.
19 Have you paid the bill? (a) Yes, I…
(b) Yes, I (pay) it while you were away.
20 Have you ever flown a plane? (a) No, I . . .
(b) Yes, I (fly) when I was at university.
21 Has your dog ever bitten anyone? (a) Yes, he (bite) a policeman
last week.
(b) Yes, he (bite) me twice.
22 Have you planted your peas? (a) Yes, I (plant) them on
(b) No, 1… yet.
23 Has he written to the paper? (a) Yes, he . . .
(b) Yes, he (write) at once.
24 Have you ever drunk vodka? (a) No, 1…
(b) I (drink) it once in Russia but I (not drink) it

1 have, wound 2 haven’t, ate 3 has, fed 4 haven’t, have only repaired 5 have done, did 6 haven’t, haven’t found 7 have, made 8 haven’t, have been 9 haven’t, haven’t seen 10 have, went 11 have driven, drove 12 hasn’t, has, went 13 have, was 14 has, spoke 15 have only spent, have 16 haven’t saved, have saved 17 hasn’t, went 18 haven’t seen, saw, didn’t see 19 have, paid 20 haven’t, flew 21 bit, has bitten 22 planted, haven’t 23 has, wrote 24 haven’t, drank, haven’t drunk

Present Perfect or Simple Past?
Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the simple past tense. In some sentences the present perfect continuous (PEG 190) is also possible.

1 This is my house. ~
How long you (live) here? ~
I (live) here since 1970.
2 He (live) in London for two years and then (go) to Edinburgh.
3 You (wear) your hair long when you were at school? ~
Yes, my mother (insist) on it.
4 But when I (leave) school I (cut) my hair and (wear) it short ever since.
5 Shakespeare (write) a lot of plays.
6 My brother (write) several plays. He just (finish) his second tragedy.
7 I (fly) over Loch Ness last week. ~
You (see) the Loch Ness monster?
8 I (not see) him for three years. I wonder where he is.
9 He (not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up.
10 Chopin (compose) some of his music in Majorca.
11 When he (arrive)? ~
He (arrive) at 2.00.
12 You (lock) the door before you left the house?
13 I (read) his books when I was at school. I (enjoy) them very much.
14 I can’t go out because I (not finish) my work.
15 I never (drink) whisky. ~
Well, have some now.
16 I (write) the letter but I can’t find a stamp.
17 The clock is slow. ~
It isn’t slow, it (stop).
18 Here are your shoes; I just (clean) them.
19 I (leave) home at 8.00 and (get) here at twelve.
20 I (do) this sort of work when I (be) an apprentice.
21 He just (go) out.
22 He (go) out ten minutes ago.
23 You (have) breakfast yet? ~
Yes, I (have) it at 8.00.
24 I (meet) him last June.
25 You (see) the moon last night?
26 The concert (begin) at 2.30 and (last) for two hours. Everyone (enjoy) it very much.
27 The play just (begin). You are a little late.
28 The newspaper (come)? ~
Yes, Ann is reading it.
29 The actors (arrive) yesterday and (start) rehearsals early this morning.
30 It (be) very cold this year. I wonder when it is going to get warmer.
31 Cervantes (write) Don Quixote.
32 We (miss) the bus. Now we’ll have to walk.
33 He (break) his leg in a skiing accident last year.
34 Mr Pound is the bank manager. He (be) here for five years.
35 Mr Count (work) as a cashier for twenty-five years. Then he (retire) and (go) to live in the country.
36 You (be) here before? ~
Yes, I (spend) my holidays here last year. ~
You (have) a good time? ~
No, it never (stop) raining.

Cevap: Present Perfect or Simple Past?
1 have you lived/have you been living, have lived/have been living 2 lived, went 3 did you wear, insisted 4 left, cut, have worn 5 wrote 6 has written, has just finished 7 flew, did you see 8 haven’t seen 9 hasn’t smoked 10 composed II did he arrive, arrived 12 did you lock 13 read, enjoyed 14 haven’t finished 15 have never drunk 16 have written 17 has stopped 18 have just cleaned 19 left, got 20 did, was 21 has just gone 22 went
23 have you had, had 24 met 25 did you see 26 began, lasted, enjoyed 27 has just begun 28 has the newspaper come 29 arrived, started 30 has been 31 wrote 32 have missed
33 broke 34 has been 35 worked, retired, went 36 have you been, spent, did you have, stopped

Present Perfect or Simple Past?
Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past tense. Fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary used in the preceding verb.
You (see) Mary on Monday? ~
Yes, I…
Did you see Mary on Monday?’
Yes, I did.

1 Where is Tom?-
I (not see) him today, but he (tell) Mary that he’d be in for dinner.
2 I (buy) this in Bond Street. ~
How much you (pay) for it? ~
I (pay) Ј100.
3 Where you (find) this knife? ~
I (find) it in the garden. ~
Why you (not leave) it there?
4 I (lose) my black gloves. You (see) them anywhere? ~
No, I’m afraid 1…. When you last (wear) them? ~
I (wear) them at the theatre last night. ~
Perhaps you (leave) them at the theatre.
5 Do you know that lady who just (leave) the shop? ~
Yes, that is Miss Thrift. Is she a customer of yours? ~
Not exactly. She (be) in here several times but she never (buy) anything.
6 He (leave) the house at 8.00. ~
Where he (go)? ~
I (not see) where he (go).
7 He (serve) in the First World War. ~
When that war (begin)? ~
It (begin) in 1914 and (last) for four years.
8 Who you (vote) for at the last election? ~
I (vote) for Mr Pitt. ~
He (not be) elected, (be) he? ~
No, he (lose) his deposit.
9 You (like) your last job? ~
I (like) it at first but then I (quarrel) with my employer and he (dismiss) me. ~
How long you (be) there? ~
I (be) there for two weeks.
10 I (not know) that you (know) Mrs Pitt. How long you (know) her? ~
I (know) her for ten years.
11 That is Mr Minus, who teaches me mathematics, but he (not have) time to teach me much. I only (be) in his class for a week.
12 You (hear) his speech on the radio last night? ~
Yes, I . . . ~
What you (think) of it?
13 I (not know) that you (be) here. You (be) here long? ~
Yes, I (be) here two months. ~
You (be) to the Cathedral? ~
Yes, I (go) there last Sunday.
14 You ever (try) to give up smoking? ~
Yes, I (try) last year, but then I (find) that I was getting fat so I (start) again.
15 You (see) today’s paper? ~
No, anything interesting (happen)?
Yes, two convicted murderers (escape) from the prison down the road.
16 Mary (feed) the cat? ~
Yes, she (feed) him before lunch. ~
What she (give) him? ~
She (give) him some fish.
17 How long you (know) your new assistant? ~
I (know) him for two years. ~
What he (do) before he (come) here? ~
I think he (be) in prison.
18 I (not see) your aunt recently. ~
No. She (not be) out of her house since she (buy) her colour TV.
19 The plumber(be)here yet? ~
Yes, but he only (stay) for an hour. ~
What he (do) in that time? ~
He (turn) off the water and (empty) the tank.
20 Where you (be)?
I (be) out in a yacht. ~
You (enjoy) it? ~
Yes, very much. We (take) part in a race. ~
You (win)? ~
No, we (come) in last.
21 How long that horrible monument (be) there? ~
It (be) there six months. Lots of people (write) to the Town Council asking them to take it away but so far nothing (be) done.
22 I just (be) to the film War and Peace. You (see) it? ~
No, 1…. Is it like the book? ~
I (not read) the book. ~
I (read) it when I (be) at school. ~
When Tolstoy (write) it? ~
He (write) it in 1868. ~
He (write) anything else?
23 Hannibal (bring) elephants across the Alps. ~
Why he (do) that? ~
He (want) to use them in battle.
24 Where you (be)? ~
I (be) to the dentist. ~
He (take) out your bad tooth? ~
Yes, he . . . ~
It (hurt)?-
Yes, horribly.
25 She (say) that she’d phone me this morning, but it is now 12.30 and she (not phone)
26 I just (receive) a letter saying that we (not pay) this quarter’s electricity bill. I (not give) you the money for that last week? ~
Yes, you . . . but I’m afraid I (spend) it on something else.
27 How long you (be) out of work? ~
I’m not out of work now. I just (start) a new job. ~
How you (find) the job? ~
I (answer) an advertisement in the paper.
28 You (finish) checking the accounts? ~
No, not quite. I (do) about half so far.
29 I (cut) my hand rather badly. Have you a bandage? ~
I’ll get you one. How it (happen)? ~
I was chopping some wood and the axe (slip).
30 How you (get) that scar? ~
I (get) it in a car accident a year ago.
31 You (meet) my brother at the lecture yesterday? ~
Yes, I .. .. We (have) coffee together afterwards.
32 He (lose) his job last month and since then he (be) out of work. ~
Why he (lose) his job? ~
He (be) very rude to Mr Pitt.
33 What are all those people looking at? ~
There (be) an accident. ~
You (see) what (happen)? ~
Yes, a motor cycle (run) into a lorry.
34 I (phone) you twice yesterday and (get) no answer.
35 Originally horses used in bull fights (not wear) any protection, but
for some time now they (wear) special padding,
36 That house (be) empty for a year. But they just (take) down the ‘For Sale’ sign, so I suppose someone (buy) it.

Cevap: Present Perfect or Simple Past?
1 haven’t seen, told 2 bought, did you pay, paid 3 did you find, found, didn’t you leave 4 have lost, have you seen, haven’t, did you last wear, wore, left 5 has just left, has been, has never bought 6 left, did he go, didn’t see, went 7 served, did that war
begin, began, lasted 8 did you vote, voted, wasn’t, was, lost 9 did you like, liked, quarrelled, dismissed, were, was 10 didn’t know, knew, have you known, have known
11 hasn’t had, have been 12 did you hear, did, did you think 13 didn’t know, were, have you been, have been, have you been, went 14 have you tried, tried, found, started 15 have you seen, has anything happened, have escaped 16 has Mary fed, fed, did she give, gave 17 have you known, have known, did he do, came, was 18 have you seen, hasn’t been bought 19 has the plumber been, stayed, did he do, turned, emptied 20 have you been, have been, did you enjoy, took, did you win, came 21 has that been, has been, have written, has been 22 have just been, have you seen, haven’t, haven’t read, read, was, did Tolstoy write, wrote, did he write 23 brought, did he do, wanted 24 have you been, have been, did he take, did, did it hurt 25 said, hasn’t phoned 26 have just received, haven’t paid, didn’t I give, did, spent/have spent 27 have you been, have just started, did you find, answered 28 have you finished, have done 29 have cut, did it happen, slipped 30 did you get, got 31 did you meet, did, had 32 lost, has been, did he lose, was 33 has been, did you see, happened, ran 34 phoned, got 35 did not wear, have worn 36 has been, have just taken, has bought

Simple Past or Past Continuous?

Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or the past continuous tense.

1 I lit the fire at 6.00 and it (bum) brightly when Tom came in at 7.00.
2 When I arrived the lecture had already started and the professor (write) on the overhead projector.
3 I (make) a cake when the light went out. I had to finish it in the dark.
4 I didn’t want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I (leave).
5 Unfortunately when I arrived Ann just (leave), so we only had time for a few words.
6 He (watch) TV when the phone rang. Very unwillingly he (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it.
7 He was very polite. Whenever his wife entered the room he (stand) up.
8 The admiral (play) bowls when he received news of the invasion. He (insist) on finishing the game.
9 My dog (walk) along quietly when Mr Pitt’s Pekinese attacked him.
10 When I arrived she (have) lunch. She apologized for starting without me but said that she always (lunch) at 12.30.
11 He always (wear) a raincoat and (carry) an umbrella when he walked to the office.
12 What you (think) of his last book? ~
I (like) it very much.
13 I (share) a flat with him when we were students. He always (complain) about my untidiness.
14 He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction.
15 He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window and (throw) out a bucket of water.
16 I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand.
17 The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps. He immediately (put) out his torch and (crawl) under the bed.
18 When I (look) for my passport I (find) this old photograph.
19 You looked very busy when I (see) you last night. What you (do)?
20 The boys (play) cards when they (hear) their father’s step. They immediately (hide)
the cards and (take) out their lesson books.
21 He (clean) his gun when it accidentally (go) off and (kill) him.
22 He (not allow) us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind (blow).
23 As I (cross) the road I (step) on a banana skin and (fall) heavily.
24 I still (lie) on the road when I (see) a lorry approaching.
25 Luckily the driver (see) me and (stop) the lorry in time.
26 How you (damage) your car so badly? ~
I (run) into a lamp-post yesterday. ~
I suppose you (drive) too quickly or were not looking where you (go).
27 As he (get) into the bus it (start) suddenly and he (fall) backwards on to the road.
28 I (call) Paul at 7.00 but it wasn’t necessary because he already (get) up.
29 When he (mend) the fuse he (get) a very bad shock.
30 When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not recognize) him at first because I (not wear) my glasses.
31 When I came in they (sit) round the fire. Mr Pitt (do) a crossword puzzle, Mrs Pitt (knit), the others (read). Mrs Pitt (smile) at me and (say), ‘Come and sit down.’
32 While the guests (dance) thieves (break) into the house and (steal) a lot of fur coats.
33 The next day, as they (know) that the police (look) for them, they (hide) the coats in
a wood and (go) off in different directions.
34 She was very extravagant. She always (buy) herself new clothes.
35 Her mother often (tell) her that she (spend) too much money but she never (listen).
36 Whenever the drummer (begin) practising, the people in the next flat (bang) on
the wall.

Cevap: Simple Past or Past Continuous?
I was burning 2 was writing 3 was making 4 left 5 was just leaving 6 was watching, turned, went 7 stood 8 was playing, insisted 9 was walking 10 was having, lunched 11 wore, carried 12 did you think, liked 13 shared, was always complaining/always complained 14 realized, was travelling 15 was playing, threw 16 was just opening, blew 17 was opening, heard, put, crawled 18 was looking, found 19 saw, were you doing 20 were playing, heard, hid, took 21 was cleaning, went, killed
22 didn’t allow, was blowing 23 was crossing/crossed, stepped, fell 24 was still lying, saw 25 saw, stopped 26 did you damage, ran, were driving, were going 27 was getting/got, started, fell 28 called, was already getting up 29 was mending/mended, got 30 heard,
went, opened, didn’t recognize, wasn’t wearing 31 were sitting, was doing, was knitting, were reading, smiled, said 32 were dancing, broke, stole 33 knew, were looking, hid, went 34 was always buying 35 told, was spending/spent, listened 36 began, banged

Simple Past or Past Continuous?
Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past continuous tense.

1 Mr Smith never (wake) up in time in the mornings and always (get) into trouble for being late; so one day he (go) to town and (buy) an alarm clock.
2 To get home he (have to) go through a field where a bad-tempered bull usually (graze).
3 This bull normally (not chase) people unless something (make) him angry. Unfortunately, as Mr Smith (cross) the field, his alarm clock (go) off.
4 This (annoy) the bull, who immediately (begin) to chase Mr Smith.
5 Mr Smith (carry) an open umbrella as it (rain) slightly. He (throw) the umbrella to the ground and (run) away as fast as he could.
6 The bull (stop) and (begin) to attack the umbrella. While he (do) this Mr Smith escaped.
7 When he (awake) she (sit) by the window. She (look) at something in the street, but when he (call) her she (turn) and (smile) at him.
8 Why you (interrupt) me just now? I (have) a very interesting conversation with Mr Pitt.
9 The murderer (carry) the corpse down the stairs when he (hear) a knock on the door.
10 When I (look) through your books I (notice) that you have a copy of Murder in the Cathedral.
11 As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand. The car (stop).
12 When I (arrive) at the station Mary (wait) for me. She (wear) a blue dress and (look) very pretty. As soon as she (see) me she (wave) and (shout) something, but I couldn’t hear what she (say) because everybody (make) such a noise.
13 The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He (wear) blue overalls and black shoes.
14 She said that the car (travel) at 40 k.p.h. when it (begin) to skid.
15 She said that she (not like) her present flat and (try) to find another.
16 While he (make) his speech the minister suddenly (feel) faint. But someone (bring) him a glass of water and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue.
17 When I (see) him he (paint) a portrait of his wife. ~
You (like) it? ~
He only just (start) when I (see) it, so I couldn’t judge.
18 I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day. ~
Who (be) tried?-
A man called Bill Sykes. ~
Was he acquitted? —
I don’t know. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave).
19 I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the party early, because I (enjoy) myself.
20 As we (come) here a policeman (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for some stolen property and (ask) if he could search the car.
21 I (see) you yesterday from the bus. Why you (use) a stick? ~
I (use) a stick because I had hurt my leg that morning falling off a horse. ~
Whose horse you (ride)?
22 The floor was covered with balls of wool. Obviously Mrs Pitt (knit) something.
23 Ann said that she (be) on holiday. I (say) that I (hope) that she (enjoy) herself.
24 While he (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain. He (put) up his umbrella and (go) on watering.
25 I just (write) a cheque when I (remember) that I (have) nothing in the bank.
26 I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden. It looks very old. I wonder who it (belong) to?
27 When I last (see) her she (hurry) along the road to the station. I (ask) her where she (go) and she (say), ‘London’, but I don’t think she (speak) the truth because there
(not be) any train for London at that time.
28 The tailor said, ‘Your suit will be ready on Monday.’ But when I (call) on Monday he still (work) on it.
29 The teacher (come) into the classroom unusually early and one of the boys, who (smoke) a cigarette, (have) no time to put it out. So he (throw) it into the desk and (hope) for the best.
30 A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk.
‘You (smoke) when I (come) in?’ he (ask).
31 While I (swim) someone (steal) my clothes and I (have to) walk home in my swimsuit.
32 The men (say) that they (work) on the road outside my house and that they (want) some water to make tea.
33 He (say) that he (build) himself a house and that he (think) it would be ready in two years.
34 At 3 a.m. Mrs Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) that she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house.
35 Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. ~
I’m sorry. I (not know) that you still (read) it.
36 I (come) in very late last night and unfortunately the dog (wake) up and (start) to bark. This (wake) my mother who (come) to the top of the stairs and (say), ‘Who is there?’
I (say). It is me,’ but she (not hear) me because the dog (bark) so loudly, so she (go)
back to her room and (telephone) the police.

Cevap: Simple Past or Past Continuous?
1 woke, was always getting/always got, went, bought 2 had to, usually grazed/was usually grazing 3 didn’t normally chase, made, was crossing, went 4 annoyed, began 5 was carrying, was raining, threw, ran 6 stopped, began, was doing 7 awoke, was
sitting, was looking, called, turned, smiled 8 did you interrupt, was having 9 was carrying, heard 10 was looking, noticed 11 were walking/walked, heard, turned, held, stopped
12 arrived, was waiting, was wearing, (was) looking/looked, saw, waved, shouted, was
saying/said, was making 13 escaped, was working, was wearing 14 was travelling, began 15 didn’t like, was trying 16 was making, felt, brought, was able 17 saw, was painting, did you like, was only just starting, saw 18 took, was being, were still listening, left/were
leaving 19 was, had to, was enjoying 20 were coming, stopped, said, was looking, asked 21 saw, were you using, was using, were you riding 22 was knitting 23 was, said, hoped, was enjoying 24 was watering, began, put, went 25 was just writing, remembered,
had 26 found, was digging, belonged 27 saw, was hurrying, asked, was going, said, was speaking, wasn’t 28 called, was still working 29 came, was smoking, had, threw, hoped
30 noticed, was rising, were you smoking, came, asked 31 was swimming, stole, had to
32 said, were working, wanted 33 said, was building, thought 34 woke, said, thought, was trying 35 did you lend, was still reading, didn’t know, were still reading 36 came, woke, started, woke, came, said, said, didn’t hear, was barking, went, telephoned

Materi Pengantar Pendidikan (1)

December 8, 2009 at 1:39 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off

Pandangan tentang manusia
Hakekat manusia disimpulkan sebagai gabungan dari empat unsur, yaitu makhluk individu, sosial, susila dan beragama.

Pendidikan berfungsi untuk memanusiakan manusia. Tanpa pendidikan, manusia tidak akan dapat menjadi manusia. Pendidikan merupakan kegiatan antar manusia, yaitu oleh manusia dan untuk manusia sebab hanya manusia yang secara sadar melaksanakan usaha pendidikan untuk manusia lainnya.
Binatang tidak memerlukan pendidikan, dan tidak pula dapat dididik. Pada binatang hanya dapat dilakukan dressur. Maksudnya, binatang ini dilatih hingga dapat mengerjakan sesuatu yang sifatnya statis.

Pengertian Pokok Hakekat Manusia
Pandangan psikoanalitik terdiri dari 2 yakni pandangan psikoanalitik tradisonal dan paham neoanalitik. Freud mengemukakan bahwa struktur kepribadian seseorang meliputi 3 komponen, yaitu id, ego, dan superego. Id meliputi berbagai insting yang mendasari perkembangan seseorang. Fungsi id ialah mendorong seseorang untuk memuaskan kebutuhannya setiap waktu sepanjang hidupnya. Ego artinya fungsi kepribadian yang menjembatani antara id dan lingkungan. Superego berfungsi mengawasi atau mengontrol agar tingkah laku seseorang sesuai dengan aturan yang meliputi perintah, larangan, nilai, moral dan adat.
Paham neoanalitik lebih menekankan ego sebagai pusat kepribadian seseorang.

Pandangan Humanistik menurut Rogers, manusia mampu mengarahkan dirinya ke tujuan yang positif, mampu mengatur dan mengontrol dirinya, dan untuk berbagai hal mampu menentukan nasib sendiri.

Pandangan Martin Buber, mengemukakan bahwa manusia adalah makhluk yang cerdik. Keberdaan manusia merupakan keberadaan yang berpotensi yang terbatas secara faktual, tidak mendasar, tetapi dapat terus-menerus dikembangkan.

Pandangan Behavioristik, menurut Hansen, lingkungan adalah penentu tunggal dari tingkah laku manusia, dan tingkah laku ini merupakan kemampuan yang dipelajari. Perkembangan kepribadian manusia hanya tergantung pada lingkungannya.

Hakekat Pendidikan
Ilmu Pendidikan mengandung 2 unsur yaitu unsur ilmu pengetahuan dan unsur pendidikan. Sebagai unsur ilmu pengetahuan, ilmu kependidikan menyusun batang tubuh pengetahuan teoritas berdasarkan epistemologis keilmuan yang logis, analitis, sistematis dan teruji kebenarannya. Ilmi pendidikan sebagai unsur ilmu pengetahuan pada hakekatnya memiliki beberapa makna, yakni makna pada bidang kelimuan, bidang perangkat pengetahuan dan bidang metode.

Konsep Pendidikan
Pendidikan merupakan suatu kegiatan yang universal di dalam kehidupan manusia. Dimanapun dan kapanpun di dunia ini terdapat pendidikan. Pendidikan dipandang merupakan kegiatan manusia untuk memanusiakan manusia sendiri, yaitu agar manusia berbudaya.

Pengertian pendidikan ditinjau dari artikata etimologis.
Bahasa Indonesia; mengartikan kata pendidikan sebagai perbuatan (hal, cara) mendidik. Sedangkan artika mendidik ialah memelihara dan memberi latihan (ajaran, pimpinan) mengenai akhlak dan kecerdasan pikiran.
Bahasa Jawa; panggulawentah berarti mengelola, membina kejiwaannya dengan mematangkan perasaannya, pikiran kemauan dan watak sang anak.

Definisi pendidikan menurut Langeveld, mendidik adalah memberikan pertolongan secara sadar dan sengaja kepada seorang anak (yang belum dewasa) dalam pertumbuhannya menuju ke arah kedewasaan dalam arti dapat berdiri sendiri dan bertanggung jawab susila atas segala tindakan-tindakannya menurut pilihannya sendiri.
Menurut John Dewey, pendidikan sebagai suatu proses, dimana pendidikan diartikan sebagai tuntunan terhadap proses pertumbuhan dan proses sosialisasi dari anak.
Menurut ki Hajar Dewantoro, pendidikan yaitu menuntun segala kekuatan kodrad yang ada pada anak-anak itu, agar mereka sebagai manusia dan sebagai anggota masyarakat dapatlah mendapat keselamatan dan kebahagiaan yang setinggi-tingginya.

Pandangan Mono Disipliner
Pandangan Sosiologis; pendidikan merupakan usaha (proses) pewarisan sosial dari generasi ke generasi.
Pandangan Antropologik (budaya); pendidikan adalah usaha pemindahan nilai-nilai budaya kepada generasi berikutnya.
Pandangan Psikologik; pendidikan sebagai perkembangan (pertumbuhan) kapasitas individu secara optimal.
Pandangan ekonomi; pendidikan sebagai usaha penanaman modal insani.
Pandangan politik; pendidikan diartikan sebagai usaha pembinaan kader bangsa.
Pandangan filosofi; (a) manusia sebagai Homo Religious, mengembangkan kesadaran beragama melalui pendidikan agama; (b) manusia sebagai Homo Sapience (makhluk rasional/berfikir), mengembangkan kemampuan berfikir anak/subyek didik, melalui pendidikan intelektual (kognitif); (c) manusia sebagai Homo Ekonomikus (makhluk ekonomi), membimbing anak hingga dapat bertindak sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip ekonomi; (d) manusia sebagai Homo Faber (makhluk berpiranti/berbuat), mengembangkan dan melatih berbagai macam ketrampilan; (e) manusia sebagai Homo etis (makhluk susila), menanamkan norma-norma kesusilaan dan mampu berbuat susila; (f) manusia sebagai Homo Socius (makhluk sosial), proses sosialisasi atau mempersiapkan hidup di masyarakat; (g) manusia sebagai Homo Mono Dualis (makhluk dwitunggal yaitu jasmani dan rohani), mengembangkan kedua aspek tersebut sebagai kesatuan; (h) manusia sebagai makhluk Homo Mono pluralis (makhluk seutuhnya dari bermacam-macam segi), mengembangkan semua segi kepribadiannya (individu, sosila, susila, agama, kecerdasan, ketrampilan dst)

Pendidikan suatu sistem
Sistem diartikan sebagai serangkaian komponen/bagian yang saling berkaitan dan berfungsi ke arah tercapainya tujuan yang telah ditetapkan lebih dahulu. Semua sistem mempunyai: tujuan, komponen, interaksi, proses tranformasi, umpan balik, daerah batasan dan lingkungan.

Komponen-komponen dalam sistem pendidikan
Terdiri dari: tujuan Pendidikan, isi bahan pendidikan, metode pendidikan, alat pendidikan, pendidik, terdidik, lingkungan pendidikan

Landasan dan Asas Pendidikan
Landasan Filosofis; filsafat merupakan sistem nilai yang dijadikan pedoman dan arah pendidikan yang diberikan kepada peserta didik.
Landasan Psikologis; landasan psikologi lebih ditekankan kepada perkembangan peserta didik,
Landasan Sosiologis; pendidikan berlangsung dalam pergaulan. Interaksi antara pendidik (guru) dengan peserta didik (murid) di sekolah berlangsung dalam suatu proses yang disebut proses belajar mengajar dengan demikian kegiatan mengajar pada dasarnya merupakan kegiatan sosial, dan pendidikan itu berlangsung dalam masyarakat.
Landasan Kultural; landasan kultural pendidikan mudah dipahami mengingat pendidikan itu disamping sifatnya praktis tetapi juga normatif. Karena sifatnya normatif maka pendidikan memerlukan norma-norma yang dapat dijadikan isi maupun tujuan pendidikan.
Landasan Pengetahuan dan Teknologi; ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi memegang peranan penting dan mempengaruhi perkembangan di segala bidang kehidupan dan pembangunan.

Asas Tutwuri Handayani; dari belakang memberikan kewaspadaan, maksudnya ialah jangan menarik-narik anak dari depan, biarkan mereka mencari jalan sendiri, kalau anak-anak salah jalan, barulah si pamong boleh mencampurkan dirinya.
Asas Pendidikan Seumur Hidup; dalam GBHN Tap MPR no II/MPR/1983, pendidikan berlangsung seumur hidup dan dilaksanakan dalam lingkungan rumah tangga, sekolah dan msyarakat. Pendidikan bagi warga negara Indonesia berlangsung sejak manusia lahir sampai meninggal dan dilaksanakan oleh sekolah sebagai lembaga yang menyelenggarakan pendidikan formal.

Masyarakat Masa Depan
Berpangkal dari analisis perkembangan dan kecenderungan yang terjadi di bidang ilmu teknologi arus globalisasi, arus komunikasi serta pelayanan profesional dalam pelbagai bidang kehidupan manusia dapat mempengaruhi kehidupan suatu bangsa dan masyarakat dunia.

Ciri-ciri Masyarakat Masa Depan
- masyarakat yang saling berhubungan satu sama lain
- saling ketergantungan
- saling kompetitif
- saling pengertian
- saling terbuka

Antisipasi Terhadap Masyarakat Masa Depan
Langkah 1; kehidupan untuk saling berhubunga, saling ketergantungan, saling berkompetisi dan saling keterbukaan tidak harus dinanti dengan berpeluk tangan, tetapi harus diraih dan dikejar secara dinamis dan terarah.
Langkah 2; masyarakat harus berusaha bekerja dengan keras dan tekun dan terarah dalam berbagai bidang kehidupan.
Langkah 3; menguasi IPTEK, informasi dan mampu bekerja secara profesional.
Langkah 4; mengupayakan peningkatan kualitas pendidikan sebagai salah satu sektor pembangunan yang paling menentukan bagi perkembangan sumber daya manusia.
Langkah 5; perlu menghilangkan kebiasaan atau budaya yang merugikan masyarakat, seperti munafik, segan dan enggan, berjiwa feodal, percaya takhayul, boros, ingin cepat kaya, dengki, tukang tiru.
Langkah 6; memiliki kepribadian yang kuat baik sebagai pribadi, anggota masyarakat dan bangsa.
Langkah 7; tuntutan kehidupan beragama yang baik.

Upaya mengantisipasi masa depan
Perubahan nilai dan sikap (melalui upaya pendidikan, pembinaan generasi muda), pengembangan budaya dan sarana kehidupan, pengembangan sarana pendidikan.

Dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk

December 5, 2009 at 5:38 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk individu atau sebagai makhluk pribadi (Individual being)

Kesadaran manusia akan diri sendiri merupakan perwujudan individualitas manusia. Manusia sebagai individu atau sebagai pribadi adalah kenyataan yang paling jelas dalam kesadaran manusia.
Tidak ada orang yang dilahirkan persis sama dengan orang lain walaupun mereka yang lahir kembar. Demikian pula dengan apa yang mereka alami dan yang mereka peroleh dari lingkungan yang luas yang selama proses perjalanan hidup dan kehidupannya. Tiap orang memiliki sifat kepribadiannya sendiri.
Makna individualitas itu adalah berupa sifat kemandirian, sifat otonom (kebebasan) dan sifat untuk tiap pribadi. Makin sadar manusia akan diri sendiri, sesungguhnya makin sadar pula akan kesemestaan, dan makin sadar bahwa dirinya adalah bagian yang tak terpisahkan dari kesemestaan itu.
Dengan kesadaran akan kesemestaan ini, timbullah kesadaran akan posisi pribadinya untuk mengalami antar hubungan dan antar aksi dengan konsekuensi bahwa dirinya harus mengakui adanya hak dan kewajiban, adanya norma-norma moral, adanya nilai-nilai sosial dan nilai-nilai supernatural yang harus diperhatikan.
Bahwa anak ingin menjadi seorang (manusia) pribadi dalam arti pribadinya sendiri. Tiap pengaruh yang datang/dialaminya baik yang sengaja atau yang tidak disengaja akan diolahnya, diseleksi, dipertimbangan dan dikembangkan dengan sangat pribadi sampai menjadi bagian dari dirinya sendiri. Tidak ada orang yang sungguh-sungguh ingin menjadi orang lain.
Dalam pendidikan maka peserta didik harus diakui dan diperlakukan sebagai individu (pribadi) yang ideal. Pengakuan dan perlakuan peserta didik sebagai individu juga tertuang dalam Undang Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional No.2 tahun 1989 Bab VI pasal 23 ayat 1; Pasal 24 ayat 1, 2, 6 dan 7 serta Pasal 26.
Bab VI Pasal 23 ayat 1 “Pendidikan nasional bersifat terbuka dan memberikan keleluasaan gerak kepada peserta didik”.
Penjelasan : Sesuai dengan dasar, fungsi, dan tujuannya, pendidikan nasional bersifat terbuka. Sifat itu diungkapkan dengan keleluasaan gerak peserta didik. Ini merupakan kesempatan yang diberikan kepada peserta didik untuk mengembangkan bakatnya sesuai dengan kemampuan dan minatnya. Keleluasaan gerak berarti terbukanya kesempatan bagi peserta didik untuk mengembangkan dirinya melalui jalur pendidikan yang tersedia dan kemungkinan untuk pindah dari satu jalur ke jalur yang lain, atau dari satu jenis ke jenis pendidikan yang lain dalam jenjang yang sama. Dalam pelaksanaan keleluasaan gerak perlu diperhatikan aspek-aspek proses belajar dan kemampuan sumber daya yang tersedia. Peserta didik pada jenjang pendidikan dasar dan menengah disebut pelajar, murid atau siswa dan pada jenjang pendidikan tinggi disebut mahasiswa. Peserta didik dalam jalur pendidikan luar sekolah disebut warga belajar.
Bab VI Pasal 24 ayat 1 “Setiap peserta didik pada suatu satuan pendidikan mempunyai hak-hak mendapat perlakuan sesuai dengan bakat, minat, dan kemampuannya”.
Bab VI Pasal 24 ayat 2 “Setiap peserta didik pada suatu satuan pendidikan mempunyai hak-hak mengikuti program pendidikan yang bersangkutan atas dasar pendidikan berkelanjutan, baik untuk mengembangkan kemampuan diri maupun untuk memperoleh pengakuan tingkat pendidikan tertentu yang telah dibakukan”.
Bab VI Pasal 24 ayat 6 “Setiap peserta didik pada suatu satuan pendidikan mempunyai hak-hak menyelesaikan program pendidikan lebih awal dari waktu yang ditentukan”.
Bab VI Pasal 24 ayat 7 “Setiap peserta didik pada suatu satuan pendidikan mempunyai hak-hak mendapat pelayanan khusus bagi yang menyandang cacat”.
Bab VI Pasal 26 “Peserta didik berkesempatan untuk mengembangkan kemampuan dirinya dengan belajar pada setiap saat”.
Penjelasan : Setiap warga negara berkesempatan seluas-luasnya untuk menjadi peserta didik melalui pendidikan sekolah ataupun pendidikan luar sekolah. Dengan demikian, setiap warga negara diharapkan dapat belajar pada tahap-tahap mana saja dari kehidupannya dalam mengembangkan dirinya sebagai manusia Indonesia. Tetapi tidak diharapkan terus menerus belajar tanpa mengabdikan kemampuan yang diperolehnya untuk kepentingan masyarakat. Penilaian pendidikan berkelanjutan tersebut dimungkinkan melalui ujian persamaan atau ekstranci. Warga negara yang belajar mandiri dapat diberi kesempatan untuk menempuh ujian persamaan pada jenjang pendidikan dasar dan menengah.

Pengembangan dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk individu
Sebagai makhluk individu, manusia memerlukan pola tingkah laku yang bukan sekedar tindakan instingtip tetapi selalu bertindak atas pilihannya sendiri dan harus dapat dipertanggungjawabkan atas kesesuaiannya dengan norma-norma/nilai/aturan/adat istiadat yang berlaku. Untuk ini pendidikan harus berusaha mengembangkan kemampuan memperoleh norma dan nilai (kognitip terhadap nilai/norma) kemampuan menentukan sikap terhadap norma/nilai efektif, mampu menentukan pilihan dan sanggup untuk melaksanakan kegiatan sesuai dengan norma/nilai yang baik yang telah dipilihnya tersebut (segi afektip terhadap norma/nilai). Individu harus mampu dan mau melakukan perbuatan yang baik (aspek psiko-motorik dalam norma dan nilai).
Untuk dapat dan mampu “berdiri sendiri” (tidak terlalu tergantung dan menggantungkan diri dari orang lain), maka manusia harus memiliki akal/pikiran yang baik, kemauan yang kuat, perasaan yang halus matang dan mantap, sehat jasmani kuat (energik). Karena itu pendidikan harus berusaha untuk membantu pengembangan kemampuan-kemampuan kognitip pada umumnya, melalui berbagai pembelajaran terkait, seperti bidang ilmu pengetahuan dan cara-cara memperolehnya. Pendidikan harus berusaha mewujudkan berbagai kegiatan dan perasaan.
Untuk dapat menolong diri sendiri, manusia harus memiliki berbagai ketrampilan yang didukung oleh pengetahuan dan kemauan, kretaif dan ulet. Pendidikan dapat memberikan berbagai pendidikan ketrampilan (vocational education), dari bentuk-bentuk ketrampilan sederhana, ketrampilan teknis maupun profesional.
Dapat disimpulkan bahwa untuk pengembangan dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk individu dapat diupayakan melalui pendidikan yang mengacu kepada pengembangan bidang afektip, kognitip dan psikomotorik (bidang sikap, pengenalan dan ketrampilan).
Situasi yang dapat membawa perkembangan kapasitas individual adalah hal-hal yang terkait dengan health, intelectual power, responsibility for moral choices dan aesthetic expression appreciation.

Dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk sosial (Social being)

Manusia memiliki potensi sosial yang dibawa sejak lahir, tumbuh dan berkembang dalam phenomena kehidupannya sehingga menjadi kesadaran sosial.
Bahwa untuk hidup dalam artian yang benar-benar manusiawi, orang harus dalam konteks hidup bersama dengan orang lain. Manusia memerlukan bantuan orang lain dari sejak kelahirannya sampai saat-saat menjelang ajalnya, baik bantuan langsung maupun tidak langsung. Realita kehidupan manusia dalam kebersamaannya (kesemestaannya) berada pada kondisi interdependensi dan interaksi, hal ini memungkinkan terjadinya saling asah, saling asih dan saling asuh, yang menjadi pendorong proses perkembangan dirinya.
Pada waktu dilahirkan manusia telah memerlukan “Biolosical helpness” yaitu pertolongan yang memungkinkan untuk kelangsungan hidupnya. Peristiwa ini yang memaksa anak untuk bersosialisasi dengan orang lain.
Manusia memiliki potensi untuk menjalin hubungan dengan orang lain untuk memenuhi kebutuhan untuk hidup berkelompok. Perwujudan manusia sebagai makhluk sosial terutama tampak dalam kenyataan bahwa tak pernah ada manusia yang mampu hidup tanpa pertolongan orang lain. Dalam kehidupan nyata manusia berada dalam kebersamaan, baik sebagai anggota keluarga, anggota kelompok sebaya, warga masyarakat, warga negara, warga pemeluk suatu agama maupun anggota dari bentuk-bentuk kelompok yang lain.
Sifat interdependensi merupakan sifat inherent kesadaran sosial. Interdependensi tidak hanya dalam bidang material-ekonomis untuk pemenuhan kebutuhan biologis-jasmaniah saja, tetapi juga menyangkut bidang moral-spiritual. Idealnya hidup bersama itu adalah adanya bentuk-bentuk interdependensi dan interaksi yang harmonis, rukun dan sejahtera. Untuk ini maka tiap-tiap individu harus rela mengorbankan sebagian dari hak individualitasnya demi kepentingan bersama agar tidak mengalami kebersamaan yang disharmonis. Namun demikian kehidupan individu dalam kebersamaan itu tidak usah kehilangan identitas, dan tidak harus menonjolkan individualitasnya.
Sebagai perwujudan kebersamaan, yang tampak adalah identitas sosial dengan sifat pluralitasnya, identitas sosial ini mengatasi identitas individu-individu di dalamnya. Dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk sosial ini juga tercermin dalam Undang Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional No.2 tahun 1989 Bab II Pasal 4, Bab V Pasal 15 ayat (1); Pasal 16 ayat (1); Bab VI Pasal 24 ayat 3; Pasal 25 ayat 1.
Bab II Pasal 4 “Pendidikan Nasional bertujuan mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa dan mengembangkan manusia Indonesia seutuhnya, yaitu manusia yang beriman dan bertaqwa terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dan berbudi pekerti luhur, memiliki pengetahuan dan keterampilan, kesehatan jasmani dan rohani, kepribadian yang mantap dan mandiri serta rasa tanggung jawab kemasyarakatan dan kebangsaan”.
Bab V Pasal 15 ayat 1 “Pendidikan menengah diselenggarakan untuk melanjutkan dan meluaskan pendidikan dasar serta menyiapkan peserta didik menjadi anggota masyarakat yang memiliki kemampuan mengadakan hubungan timbal balik dengan lingkungan sosial, budaya dan alam sekitar serta dapat mengembangkan kemampuan lebih lanjut dalam dunia kerja atau pendidikan tinggi”.
Penjelasan : Pendidikan menengah merupakan pendidikan yang lamanya 3 (tiga) tahun sesudah pendidikan dasar dan diselenggarakan di Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat Atas (SLTA) atau satuan pendidikan yang sederajat.
Bab V Pasal 16 ayat 1 “Pendidikan tinggi merupakan kelanjutan pendidikan menengah yang diselenggarakan untuk menyiapkan peserta didik menjadi anggota masyarakat yang memiliki kemampuan akademik dan/atau profesional yang dapat menerapkan, mengembangkan dan/atau menciptakan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi dan/atau kesenian”.
Bab VI Pasal 24 ayat 3 “Setiap peserta didik pada suatu satuan pendidikan mempunyai hak-hak mendapat bantuan fasilitas belajar, beasiswa, atau bantuan lain sesuai dengan persyaratan yang berlaku”.
Bab VI Pasal 25 ayat 1 “Setiap peserta didik berkewajiban untuk: (a) ikut menanggung biaya penyelenggaraan pendidikan, kecuali bagi peserta didik yang dibebaskan dari kewajiban tersebut sesuai dengan peraturan yang berlaku; (b) mematuhi semua peraturan yang berlaku; (c) menghormati tenaga kependidikan; (d) ikut memelihara sarana dan prasarana serta kebersihan, ketertiban dan keamanan satuan pendidikan yang bersangkutan”.
Penjelasan : Pada dasarnya pendidikan merupakan tanggung jawab bersama antara keluarga, masyarakat dan Pemerintah, yang berlaku juga dalam hal biaya penyelenggaraan pendidikan. Pada satuan pendidikan yang diselenggarakan oleh Pemerintah pada dasarnya peserta didik ikut menanggung biaya penyelenggaraan pendidikan yang jumlahnya ditetapkan menurut kemampuan orang tua atau wali peserta didik. Pada jenjang pendidikan yang dikenakan ketentuan wajib belajar, biaya penyelenggaraan pendidikan pada satuan pendidikan yang diselenggarakan oleh Pemerintah merupakan tanggung jawab Pemerintah sehingga peserta didik tidak dikenakan kewajiban untuk ikut menanggung biaya penyelenggaraan pendidikan. Peserta didik pada jenjang pendidikan lainnya yang ternyata memiliki kecerdasan luar biasa tetapi tidak mampu ikut menanggung biaya penyelenggaraan pendidikan dapat dibebaskan dari kewajiban tersebut. Pembebanan biaya tambahan yang tidak langsung berhubungan dengan kegiatan belajar- mengajar tidak dibenarkan.

Pengembangan dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk sosial
Kehidupan sosial/budaya manusia dimungkinkan oleh adanya bahasa sebagai alat komunikasi (termasuk bahasa, simbol dan gerak).
Untuk pengembangan dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk sosial diperlukan adanya pengalaman (langsung atau tidak langsung), terutama pengalaman yang dapat menumbuh-kembangkan kemampuan dan ketrampilan berkomunikasi dan kesadaran ekologi. Komunikasi menjembatani adanya interaksi dan interdependensi.
Secara umum pendidikan untuk mengembangkan manusia sebagai makhluk sosial bertujuan untuk membentuk manusia yang mempunyai social understanding, social attitude dan social skill.
Kesadaran sosial (social understanding) dapat dikembangkan melalui pengalaman belajar dalam bidang ilmu-ilmu sosial seperti sejarah, ekonomi, sosiologi, geografi, antropologi, kewarganegaraan (ilmu-ilmu tersebut difungsikan menjadi bidang studi IPS).
Lebih jauh lagi pengembangan manusia sebagai makhluk sosial juga bertujuan untuk membantu manusia agar memperoleh kehidupan yang baik di dalam masyarakat (lingkungan sosialnya). Karena itu pendidikan harus berorientasi pada fungsi sosial sehingga perlu diadakan kegiatan-kegiatan yang berkenaan dengan: self preservation, securing necesseries of life, rearing and diciplining of spring, maintenance of proper social and political relations, miscellaneous activities which make up the leasure part of life, devote to the gratification of the tastes and feelings.
Kegiatan-kegiatan praktis yang dapat menjadi sarana pendidikan sosialitas manusia seperti: diskusi, bakti sosial, study club, camping, berorganisasi, bermain peranan, berkoperasi, KKN, tolong menolong, dan lain-lain.

Dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk susila (Moral being)

Budi nurani manusia adalah sadar nilai dan menjunjung tinggi norma dan sebagai pendukung kesadaran susila (sense of morality). Adanya nilai-nilai, efektivitas nilai-nilai dan berfungsinya nilai-nilai hanya ada dalam kehidupan sosial. Berarti kesusilaan dan moralitas adalah fungsi sosial. Moralitas merupakan dasar fundamental yang membedakan kehidupan sosial manusia dari kehidupan bersama makhluk-makhluk infra human.
Setiap hubungan sosial manusia selalu mengandung hubungan moral. Hubungan sosial manusia dalam arti luas mencakup hubungan horizontal dan hubungan vertikal. Hubungan horizontal adalah hubungan antar sesama manusia, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Sedang hubungan vertikal adalah hubungan antara manusia dengan Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, bersifat transcendental.
Manusia yang berkepribadian etik adalah manusia yang dalam tindakannya selalu memilih yang baik sesuai dengan penerangan budinya. Tindakan yang baik adalah tindakan yang sesuai dengan derajad manusia, jadi tidak mengurangi atau menentang kemanusiaannya.
Kesusilaan harus dilaksanakan dalam kehidupan manusia. Kesadaran moral sebagai dasar kesusilaan pada manusia tumbuh dan berkembang dari tingkat kesadaran pra-moral sampai ke kesadaran moral yang mantap. Untuk ini pendidikan dapat memberikan kontribusi yang besar.
Ketentuan-ketentuan yang terkait dengan dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk susila seperti yang tercantum dalam Undang Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional No.2 tahun 1989 Bab VI Pasal 24 ayat 1; Pasal 25 ayat 1 butir 2, 3 dan 4; Bab VII Pasal 31.
Bab VI Pasal 24 ayat 1 “Setiap peserta didik pada suatu satuan pendidikan mempunyai hak-hak mendapat perlakuan sesuai dengan bakat, minat, dan kemampuannya”.
Bab VI Pasal 25 ayat 1 butir 2 “Setiap peserta didik berkewajiban untuk mematuhi semua peraturan yang berlaku”.
Bab VI Pasal 25 ayat 1 butir 3 “Setiap peserta didik berkewajiban untuk menghormati tenaga kependidikan”.
Bab VI Pasal 25 ayat 1 butir 4 “Setiap peserta didik berkewajiban untuk ikut memelihara sarana dan prasarana serta kebersihan, ketertiban dan keamanan satuan pendidikan yang bersangkutan”.
Bab VII Pasal 31 “Setiap tenaga kependidikan berkewajiban untuk : (1) membina loyalitas pribadi dan peserta, didik terhadap ideologi negara Pancasila dan Undang- Undang Dasar 1945; (2) menjunjung tinggi kebudayaan bangsa; (3) melaksanakan tugas dengan penuh tanggung jawab dan pengabdian; (4) meningkatkan kemampuan profesional sesuai dengan tuntutan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi serta pembangunan bangsa; (5) menjaga nama baik sesuai dengan kepercayaan yang diberikan masyarakat, bangsa dan negara”.
Penjelasan : butir 3. Pelaksanaan tugas dengan penuh tanggung jawab termasuk keteladanan dalam menjalankan tugas.

Pengembangan dimensi manusia sebagai makhluk susila
Hanya manusialah yang dapat menghayati norma/nilai kesusilaan (etika) dalam kehidupannya. Norma/nilai kesusilaan itu dipergunakan untuk menetapkan tingkah laku mana yang tergolong susila (etis) dan tingkah laku mana yang tergolong tidak susila. Apa yang akan terjadi seandainya tingkah laku manusia itu tidak berdasar norma/nilai kesusilaan, tentunya akan kacau seperti kehidupan binatang dan berlaku sekehendaknya.
Melalui pendidikan diusahakan agar manusia tumbuh dan berkembang menjadi manusia pendukung norma dan nilai kesusilaan yang dijunjung tinggi oleh masyarakatnya. Norma dan nilai diharapkan menjadi milik (manunggal dengan individu) dan selalu dipersonifikasikan dalam setiap tingkah laku/perbuatannya.
Proses internalisasi norma kadang-kadang terjadi dengan “paksaan” dari masyarakat, karena masyarakat sendiri akan merasa kawatir kalau ada individu yang tidak mematuhi norma kesusilaan akan dapat mengganggu ketenteraman/kestabilan dan kemajuan masyarakat tersebut. Apalagi kalau sebagian anggota masyarakat sudah tidak mematuhi norma/nilai kesusilaan, jelas akan hancurlah kehidupan masyarakat tersebut.
Pendidikan kesusilaan (sering juga disebut pendidikan moral) pada dasarnya bertujuan untuk mengembangkan manusia yang susila, manusia yang berwatak luhur, manusia yang berbuat sesuai dengan kata hati yang murni. Pendidikan kesusilaan mencakup:
a). Pembentukan pengertian, understanding, kesadaran akan norma/nilai kesusilaan (pembentukan domain kognitip tentang norma dan nilai).
b). Pembentukan sikap mental yang positip terhadap hal-hal yang tidak sesuai dengan etika, dengan bersikap negatif untuk hal-hal yang tidak sesuai dengan etika.
c). Memberikan pengalaman/latihan untuk perbuatan-perbuatan yang susila sampai menjadi karakteristik bagi tingkah lakunya.
Meskipun kita mengenal berbagai kriteria tentang kesusilaan, tetapi sebagai pegangan/pedoman pendidikan etika di Indonesia adalah kriteria berdasar pandangan hidup/falsafah Pancasila. Pelajaran-pelajaran/pendidikan di sekolah seperti PMP, Agama, budi pekerti dan sopan santun dapat menjadi sarana pendidikan etika.

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