Free Variation, Minimal Pairs, Glides,

February 11, 2010 at 10:27 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

FREE VARIATION

In LINGUISTICS, a relationship between the members of a pair of phonemes, words, etc., in which either can occur in the same position without causing a change of meaning: the initial vowels /i/ and /ɛ/ are in free variation in the pronunciation of economics (‘eek’ or ‘eck-’) as are up and down in the phrasal verbs slow up, slow down.
Among British speakers, a majority are said to prefer the word ate to be pronounced /et/ to rhyme with met ; but a large minority favour the pronunciation /eɪt/ like eight . The two pronunciations are therefore in free variation, as are /ekəˈnɒmiks/ or /iːkəˈnɒmiks/ for …

Minimal Pairs

Minimal pairs are pairs of words that have one phonological element that is different.

Example:
pin bin /pɪn/ /bɪn/ initial consonant
rot lot /rɒt/ /lɒt/
zeal seal /ziːl/ /siːl/
bin bean /bɪn/ /biːn/ vowel
pen pan /pɛn/ /pæn/
hat had /hæt/ /hæd/ final consonant

Examples of Vowel Contrast Pairs & Sentences
leave-live deal-dill fell-fill
cheek-chick seek-sick bean-bin
deep-dip sleep-slip eat-it
greet-grit wheat-whit heat-hit

Please SIT in this SEAT.

These shoes should FIT your FEET.

He lost the LEAD/LID.

She wore the NEAT/KNIT suit.

Don’t SLEEP/SLIP on the deck.
bead-bed speed-sped seed-said
mean-men peat-pet sweet-sweat
steam-stem beast-best beacon-beckon
teen-ten cheek-check feed-fed

The STEP is STEEP.

We MET while buying MEAT.

Some MEN are MEAN.

I FEEL/FELL sick.

We FEED/FED the cat.
beer-bear wit-wet sill-sell
bitter-better tint-tent wrist-rest
rid-red him-hem fear-fair
hat-hit pin-pen steer-stair

He HID his HEAD.

The girl SLID on the SLED.

This one is BITTER/BETTER.

They LIFT/LEFT ten-pound weights at the gym.

A list of common minimal pairs:
pear-bear choke-joke dare-their
boy-buy cheap-jeep dough-though
pig-big chin-gin shot-shout
path-bath choice-Joyce dime-time
rib-crib coat-goat die-tie
cap-cab cold-gold waiting-wading
park-bark coast-ghost best-bed
pill-bill come-gum yes-chess
Paul-ball could-good you-chew
tank-thank came-game teethe-teeth
tin-thin kick-king year-cheer
true-through sick-sing taught-thought
sank-thank they-day worthy-wordy
safe-save sin-thin sell-shell
tug-tough free-three hand-hanged
wins-wings stun-stung tour-poor
proof-prove fan-than use-chews
married-marriage chained-change stayed-stage
wedding-wedging rained-range climb-crime
clutch-crutch glass-grass stole-store
fought-thought clown-crown watching-washing
badge-bash bagging-banging tugs-tongues
raced-raised priced-prized wench-quench
heed-healed tide-tired bugged-buzzed
sting-string skit-skip hiss-hips
won-run mow-more wig-rig
west-vest wait-gate rifle-rival
grief-grieve half-have fasten-fashion
place-plays grace-graze piggy-picky
grease-crease braid-bride neat-knit
sow-sue pegging-pecking bigger-bicker

Multiple Contrasts
bead bade booed bode bide bowed
teal tail tool toll tile towel
feel fail fool foal file foul
bead bid bayed bed bad
deal dale duel dole dial
meat mitt mate met mat
heel hill hail hell Hal
speak spake spook spoke spike
peat pit pet pate pat
cooed could cud code
heat hit hate hat
doom dumb dome
greed grid grade

(Glides and Liquids)

The glides (/j/ and /w/) and the liquids (/9r/ and /l/) in American English can be grouped together in a larger category called the approximants. This name comes from the fact that the articulators are brought into closer contact, or approximation, than in any of the vowels. However, the constriction is less than for the obstruents (fricatives and plosives).
The glides /j/ and /w/ are similar to diphthongs in that they consist of vowel-like movements. They differ from diphthongs, which are moving vowels, in that:
Their energy is usually less than that that of a vowel.
Their formants do things which vowels never do.
In the case of /j/, F2 and F3 almost collide before going their separate ways. This near-miss leaves a characteristic X pattern which is the hallmark of the /j/. Think of /j/ as an exaggerated /i:/, where the tongue nearly touches the roof of the mouth. It may be divided into two phases: a period of maximal constriction followed by a rapid breakaway. Because the constriction for /j/ is so narrow, this phoneme is often marked by frication as well as voicing.
The phoneme /w/ usually starts as a single F1 at 200-400 Hz, with all significant energy below 800-900 Hz, and only gradually takes on very low F2 and F3 components as the following vowel unfolds. As soon as F3 is visible, however, it is above 2000 Hz, which helps distinguish /w/ from /9r/. Think of /w/ as a “super” /u/, where the lips are nearly in the bilabial position, leaving only a small constriction from which something less than a vowel emerges. Lip rounding is an essential part of /w/, as with /u/. In addition, /w/ is also marked by a velar constriction.
As usual with speech, these observations only represent the best-behaved examples of /j/ and /w/; we will see that there is a great deal of variation.
We call these phonemes “glides” because they glide into the syllable nucleus. They cannot form the nucleus of a syllable, and occur only in prevocalic position. When a glide follows a vowel within a syllable, the combination is considered a diphthong and not two separate phonemes.
The liquids /9r/ and /l/ are among the most interesting of English phonemes. This is because of the position of the tongue which is in each case unique:
In the case of /9r/, the retroflex liquid, the sides of the blade of the tongue are curled up to the alveolar ridge, and further back the tongue sides are brought into contact with the molars. These blockages force air to pass out through a narrow ellipse in the center of the mouth. The tip of the tongue may also be curled back; this is the original meaning of the word “retroflexion”, although different sorts of r-flavoring or rhotacization occur in the repertory of the world’s languages: the uvular fricative in French “rouge”, a /d_(/-like flap in the Spanish “pero”, the trilled double r in the Spanish “perro”, and the real retroflexes in Hindi and other Indian languages.

The main sign of the retroflex in spectrograms is that F3 comes very close to F2, in the extreme case being swallowed up into it, and in either case restricting all significant energy below 2000 Hz (higher in females and children). /9r/ is different from /3r/ in that in /9r/, the formants show a great deal of movement; in intervocalic position F3 will swing down below 2000 Hz and back above it. In /3r/, the formants seem to move instantly together and to stay there as long as the syllable persists.
The lateral liquid /l/ is in a sense the reverse of /9r/. In the lateral, it is the tip of the tongue which is placed on the alveolar ridge, while the sides of the tongue are left in their normal horizontal, open position. Air thus escapes from the two sides of the tongue out the mouth, but not from the center. The splitting and rejoining of the sound waves cause an antiresonance around 1500 Hz which is a good clue for /l/.

The phoneme /l/ shows a lot of variety in the spectrogram. Before a vowel, F3 may descend or stay even, while F2 rises, giving the phoneme a forked appearance. This is particularly true for the syllable `ly’ as in “daily.” In other cases, the formants F2 and F3 move directly into the next vowel without any marked frequency variations, but the /l/ shows less energy than the vowel. There is often a clear spectral discontinuity where the tongue touches the alveolar ridge, causing the antiresonance to form, and again when it is taken away. In postvocalic contexts, /l/ is signalled by the crushing down of F2 with F1 near or below 1000 Hz, with F3 simultaneously moving up toward 3000 Hz, again leaving the hole in the normal F2 range. The two cases may be combined in the case of intervocalic /l/, where an elliptical low-energy pattern may be detected. /l/ is easy to confuse with /oU/.

One thing which /3r/ and /l/ have in common is that their duration can be as short or long as desired. The glides must move; we cannot pronounce a long /w/ or /j/; if we try to do so, they become /u/ or /i:/. But the liquids can be pronounced as long as we wish: try saying “well” and draw out the /l/, or “father” and draw out the /3r/. Both phonemes can become syllabic nuclei: for /l/ the symbol is /l_=/, while we have already seen the vowels /3r/ and /&r/.
There are variants of the glides and liquids which occur in consonant clusters. Examples are the beginnings of the following words:

/s/ swipe, Sri, sly
/f/ few, foie gras, flood, from
/T/ thwart, thrice
/ph/ pew, poids, ply, pry
/th/ tune, twice, try
/kh/ cue, quiet, clay, cry
/b/ beautiful, bwana, blue, brute
/d/ dew, Dwight, dry
/g/ gewgaw, guava, glide, grind

Notice that in English we do not like combinations such as /th l/ or /d l/, although these exist in other languages. The voiced /z/ and /v/ occur in very few such combinations; again, this is probably an English preference since there are words such as zouave and voir in French.

In cases where the preceding consonant is voiceless, the glide or liquid may be partially or totally devoiced; in this case it is realized in aspiration bands rather than as voicing bands, and would be labelled phonetically as /j_0/, /w_0/, /9r_0/, or /l_0/. In all cases, the two phonemes interact and make recognition more difficult.
Some phoneticians speak of the dark and light variants of /l/. What they call light /l/ might also be termed pre-vocalic /l/; while dark /l/ is post-vocalic. In cases of intervocalic /l/, the liquid will tend to group either with the preceding syllable, in which case it is dark, or with the following syllable, in which case it is light. But there are many cases where the distinction is not so clear, and we get elements of both, leading to the nice diamond or O shape between F2 and F3 which is an easy marker for /l/.

Consonant Clusters index
beginning with voiced bilabial nasal —- / m / ———

001———mp (final) ——-bump, camp, hemp, limp, lump, ramp

002———mps (final) —– amps, camps, lamps, lumps, mumps, trumps

003———mf (final) ——-lymph, nymph

004———mft (final) ——triumphed

005———mfs (final) ——nymphs

006———mt (final) ——-camped, dreamt revamped, lumped

007———mt (medial) ——empty, temptation

008———mtr (medial) —–temptress

009———mts (final) ——-tempts

010———md (final) ——-aimed, assumed, formed, roamed, shamed

011———mst (final) ——glimpsed

012———mz (final) ——-comes, terms, times

beginning with voiceless bilabial plosive—- / p / —-

013———pθ (final)——–depth

014———pθs (final)——-depths

015———pθr (medial)——upthrust

016———pt (final) ——–abrupt, Egypt, except, harped, kept, opt

017———pt (medial)——abruptly, absorption, acceptable

018———pts (final) ——-accepts, adopts

019———ps (final) ——–cups, equips, jumps, perhaps, steps

020———ps (medial) ——Epsom, Ipswich, lopsided, upside down

021———pst (final) ——-lapsed

beginning with voiced bilabial plosive—- / b / —-

022———bd (final) ——–absorbed, bribed, curbed, lobbed, robed, robbed

023———bz (final) ——–cabs, fibs, jabs, knobs, verbs, yobs

beginning with voiceless labiodental fricative—- / f / —-

024———fθ (final) ———fifth, twelfth

025———fθs (final) ——–fifths, twelfths

026———fθl (medial) ——fifthly

027———ft (final) ———craft, drift, gift, left, lift, loft, soft

028———ft (medial) ——-after, daftest, often rafter, softly, swiftly, thrifty

029———fts (final) ——–crofts, drifts, gifts, lifts, lofts

030———fs (final) ———beliefs, cliffs, chefs, chiefs, hankerchiefs, laughs

beginning with voiced labiodental fricative—- / v / —-

031———vd (final) ——–arrived, believed, involved, lived, proved, saved

032———vz (final) ——–additives, captives, loaves, loves, serves, waves

beginning with voiceless dental fricative—- / θ / —-

033———θs (final) ——–baths, cloths, maths, oaths, paths, truths

beginning with voiced dental fricative—- / ð / —-[ Back ]

034———ðd (final) ——–bathed, betrothed, clothed, seethed, swathed

035———ðz (final) ——–bathes, breathes, clothes, loathes, seethes, soothes

beginning with voiced alveolar nasal—- / n / —-

036———nθ (final) ——-month, tenth

037———nθ (medial) —–anthem

038———nt (final) ——–ant, aren´t, aunt, bent, can´t, font, want

039———nts (final) ——-ants, fonts, grunts, hints, hunts, pants

040———ntst (final) ——chintzed

041———nd (final) ——-behind, concerned, find, found, friend, owned

042———nd (medial) —–friendship, landlord —–* Note rules for deletion of / d /

043———ndz (final) ——bends, ends, friends, sounds

044———ns (final) ——-hence, pence, since, tense

045———ns (medial) —–pensive, tenses

046———nz (final) ——-hens, lens, pens, runs, tens

047———nʧ (final) ——-lunch, pinch

048———nʧt (final) ——lunched, pinched

049———nʤ (final) ——change, hinge

050———nʤd (final) —–changed, hinged

beginning with voiceless alveolar plosive—- / t / —-

051———tθ (final) ——–breadth, eighth, hundredth, thousandth, width

052———tθs (final) ——-breadths, eighths, hundredths, thousandths, widths

053———ts (final) ——–cats, eats, fights, its, meets, parts, puts, waits

054———tst (final) ——amidst, midst

beginning with voiced alveolar plosive—- / d / —-

055———dz (final) ——-almonds, beds, birds, hands, kinds, weeds, words

beginning with voiceless alveolar fricative—- / s / —-

056———sp (final) ——-clasp, crisp, gasp, lisp, wasp

057———st (final) ——-chased, first, pursed

058———sts (final) ——thirsts

059———sk (final) ——-ask, desk, dusk, risk

beginning with voiced alveolar fricative—- / z / —-

060———zd (final) ——-amazed, crazed, gazed, lazed, phased, phrased

beginning with voiced alveolar lateral approximant—- / l / —-

061———lmd (final) ——filmed

062———lmz (final) ——elms, films

063———lp (final) ——–help

064———lpt (final) ——-helped

065———lps (final) ——-helps

066———lbd (final) ——-bulbed

067———lbz (final) ——-bulbs

068———lf (final) ———self

069———lfθs (final) ——-twelfths, Alf´s

070———lft (final) ——–elfed

071———lvd (final) ——-delved

072———lθ (final) ——–health

073———lθs (final) ——-tilths

074———lnd (final) ——-kilned

075———lnz (final) ——-kilns

076———lt (final) ——–difficult

077———ltst (final) ——-waltzed

078———ld (final) ——–cold, held

079———ldz (final) ——-holds, worlds

080———ls (final) ——–else

081———lz (final) ——–fills, girls

082———lʧt (final) ——-filched

083———lʤd (final) ——bilged

084———lʃt (final) ——–welshed

085———lk (final) ——–milk, silk

086———lks (final) ——-milks

087———lkt (final) ——-milked

088———lkts (final) ——mulcts

beginning with voiced alveolar approximant —— / r / —-

rm (final) ——-silent before a consonant in England & Wales——- “alarm” / əˈlɑ:m /, “arm” / ˈɑ:m /, “warm” / ˈwɔ:m /

rm (final) ——-generally pronounced (& sometimes rolled) in Scotland & Ireland
—————- “alarm” / əˈlɑ:rm /, “arm” / ˈɑ:rm /, “warm” / ˈwɔ:rm /

The / r / within these consonant clusters is generally pronounced in Canada most parts of the USA.

The / r / is pronounced by all English speakers when it precedes a vowel sound, as in “angry” / ˈærɪ / or “zebra” / ˈzebrə /.

/ r / can precede several other consonants sounds, though in these contexts it is rarely pronounced in England and Wales.

beginning with voiceless post-alveolar affricate—- / ʧ / —-

089———ʧt (final) ——-hitched, matched, watched

beginning with voiceless post-alveolar affricate—- / ʤ / —-[ Back ]

090———ʤd (final) ——caged, edged, forged, judged, waged

beginning with voiceless post-alveolar fricative—- / ʃ / —-

091———ʃt (final) ——-cashed, fished, mashed, washed

beginning with voiceless post-alveolar fricative—- / ʒ / —-

092———ʒd (final) ——-leisured, measured, pleasured, treasured

beginning with voiced palatal semi-vocalic—- / j / —-

/ t / + / j / is often replaced by / ʧ / in words such as “nature” / ˈneɪʧəʳ /, “future” / ˈfju:ʧəʳ /, “feature” / ˈfi:ʧəʳ /, and “creature” / ˈkri:ʧəʳ /. This type of assimilation is known as coalescence. See Wikipedia on Yod-coalescence.

/ d / + / j / is often replaced by / ʤ / in words such as “gradual” / ˈgræʤʊəl / and individual / . This type of assimilation is known as coalescence. See Wikipedia on Yod-coalescence.

beginning with voiced velar nasal—- / ŋ / —-

093———ŋθ (final) ——-length

094———ŋt (final) ——-instinct

095———ŋts (final) ——instincts

096———ŋd (final) ——-longed

097———ŋst (medial) —–minxed

098———ŋz (final) ——-things

099———ŋk (final) ——-think

100———ŋg (final) ——-thing

beginning with voiceless velar plosive—- / k / —-

101———kθ (final) ——-sixth

102———kθs (final) ——sixths

103———kt (final) ——-fact, worked

104———kts (final) ——conflicts, contexts, expects texts

105———ks (final) ——-six, works

106———kst (final) ——context, next, oversexed, pretext, text

beginning with voiced velar plosive—- / g / —-

107———gd (final) ——-bagged, hugged, logged, tagged, wagged

108———gz (final) ——-eggs, figs, mugs, rugs

as⋅pi⋅rate [v. as-puh-reyt; n., adj., as-per-it]
–verb (used with object)
1. Phonetics.
a. to articulate (a speech sound, esp. a stop) so as to produce an audible puff of breath, as with the first t of total, the second t being unaspirated.
b. to articulate (the beginning of a word or syllable) with an h-sound, as in which, pronounced (hwich), or hitch as opposed to witch or itch.

Generally the “h” is not sounded by itself but instead indicates a pronunciation change in the consonant directly ahead of it. This change, called “aspiration”, occurs in other languages, too. In English, for example, you know that the word “philosophy” is pronounced with “f” sounds, not “p” sounds. The “h” after the “p” tells you this, as it does in “Philip” and “triumph.” A German pronounces “ach” differently from “ac” or “ak”, too, because he knows that the “h” indicates a change, which we call “aspiration” in Irish.

Stop consonant
A stop or plosive is a consonant sound produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract by the lips or tongue.

In the case of oral stops, the airflow is blocked completely, causing pressure to build up. The obstruction in the mouth is then suddenly opened; the released airflow produces a sudden impulse in pressure causing an audible sound.

The oral cavity can also be completely obstructed while allowing air to escape through the nose; this may be called a nasal stop. Usually the term “stop” is used to refer to oral stops only, with nasal stops called simply nasals. Since nasals are always continuous, not abrupt, it seems strange to call them stops, though strictly the definition of stops given above allows it.

Here are some of the oral stops. (The figures in square brackets are from the IPA.)
[p] voiceless bilabial plosive
[b] voiced bilabial plosive
[t] voiceless alveolar plosive
[d] voiced alveolar plosive
[ʈ] voiceless retroflex plosive
[ɖ] voiced retroflex plosive
[c] voiceless palatal plosive
[ɟ] voiced palatal plosive
[k] voiceless velar plosive
[g] voiced velar plosive
[q] voiceless uvular plosive
[ɢ] voiced uvular plosive
[ʔ] glottal stop

English has the following stops:

[p], [t], [k] (voiceless)

[b], [d], [g] (voiced)

[m], [n], [n] (nasal)

[ʔ] (glottal stop, though not as a phoneme in most dialects)

All languages in the world have stops. Some Polynesian languages have only three. Swiss German has [p, t, k, pp, tt, kk]; some also have [p_h t_h k_h]. Most
languages have at least [p], [t], and [k], and usually more.

Stops may be made with more than one airstream mechanism. The normal mechanism is pulmonic, that is with air flowing outward from the lungs. A pulmonic stop is called a plosive. All languages have plosives. Some languages have stops made with other mechanisms too: these are called ejective, implosive , or click dependent on the mechanism.

Administrasi Pendidikan

February 9, 2010 at 1:27 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

ADMINISTRASI/MANAJEMEN PENDIDIKAN

Dalam pembahasan ini, konsep administrasi dipandang sama dengan konsep Manajemen. Manajemen Pendidikan terdiri dari dua kata yaitu manajemen dan pendidikan, secara sederhana manajemen pendidikan dapat diartikan sebagai manajemen yang diterapkan dalam bidang pendidikan dengan spesifikasi dan ciri-ciri khas yang berkaitan dengan pendidikan. Oleh karena itu pemahaman tentang manajemen pendidikan menuntut pula pemahaman tentang manajemen secara umum. Berikut ini akan dikemukakan tentang makna manajemen.

1. Konsep Administrasi/Manajemen
Dari segi bahasa management berasal dari kata manage (to manage) yang berarti “to conduct or to carry on, to direct” (Webster Super New School and Office Dictionary), dalam Kamus Inggeris Indonesia kata Manage diartikan “Mengurus, mengatur, melaksanakan, mengelola”(John M. Echols, Hasan Shadily, Kamus Inggeris Indonesia) , Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary mengartikan Manage sebagai “to succed in doing something especially something difficult….. Management the act of running and controlling business or similar organization” sementara itu dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia Manajemen diartikan sebagai “Prose penggunaan sumberdaya secara efektif untuk mencapai sasaran”(Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia). Adapun dari segi Istilah telah banyak para ahli telah memberikan pengertian manajemen, dengan formulasi yang berbeda-beda, berikut ini akan dikemukakan beberapa pengertian manajemen guna memperoleh pemahaman yang lebih jelas.

Tabel 2.1.

Pendapat Pakar tentang Manajemen/Administrasi
No
Pengertian Administrasi/manajemen
Pendapat

1.
The most comporehensive definition views management as an integrating process by which authorized individual create, maintain, and operate an organization in the selection an accomplishment of it’s aims
(Lester Robert Bittel (Ed), 1978 : 640)

2.
Manajemen itu adalah pengendalian dan pemanfaatan daripada semua faktor dan sumberdaya, yang menurut suatu perencanaan (planning), diperlukan untuk mencapai atau menyelesaikan suatu prapta atau tujuan kerja yang tertentu
(Prajudi Atmosudirdjo,1982 : 124)

3.
Management is the use of people and other resources to accomplish objective
(Boone& Kurtz. 1984 : 4)

4.
.. management-the function of getting things done through people
(Harold Koontz, Cyril O’Donnel:3)

5.
Manajemen merupakan sebuah proses yang khas, yang terdiri dari tindsakan-tindakan : Perencanaan, pengorganisasian, menggerakan, dan poengawasan, yang dilakukan untuk menentukan serta mencapai sasaran-sasaran yang telah ditetapkan melalui pemanfaatan sumberdaya manusia serta sumber-sumber lain
(George R. Terry, 1986:4)

6.
Manajemen dapat didefinisikan sebagai ‘kemampuan atau ketrampilan untuk memperoleh sesuatu hasil dalam rangka pencapaian tujuan melalui kegiatan-kegiatan orang lain’. Dengan demikian dapat pula dikatakan bahwa manajemen merupakan alat pelaksana utama administrasi
(Sondang P. Siagian. 1997 : 5)

7.
Management is the process of efficiently achieving the objectives of the organization with and through people
(De Cenzo&Robbin. 1999:5)

dengan memperhatikan beberapa definisi di atas nampak jelas bahwa perbedaan formulasi hanya dikarenakan titik tekan yang berbeda namun prinsip dasarnya sama, yakni bahwa seluruh aktivitas yang dilakukan adalah dalam rangka mencapai suatu tujuan dengan memanfaatkan seluruh sumberdaya yang ada, sementara itu definisi nomor empat yang dikemukakan oleh G.R Terry menambahkan dengan proses kegiatannya, sedangkan definisi nomor lima dari Sondang P Siagian menambah penegasan tentang posisi manajemen hubungannya dengan administrasi. Terlepas dari perbedaan tersebut, terdapat beberapa prinsip yang nampaknya menjadi benang merah tentang pengertian manajemen yakni :
1. Manajemen merupakan suatu kegiatan
2. Manajemen menggunakan atau memanfaatkan pihak-pihak lain
3. Kegiatan manajemen diarahkan untuk mencapai suatu tujuan tertentu

Setelah melihat pengertian manajemen, maka nampak jelas bahwa setiap organisasi termasuk organisasi pendidikan seperti Sekolah akan sangat memerlukan manajemen untuk mengatur/mengelola kerjasama yang terjadi agar dapat berjalan dengan baik dalam pencapaian tujuan, untuk itu pengelolaannya mesti berjalan secara sistematis melalui tahapan-tahapan dengan diawali oleh suatu rencana sampai tahapan berikutnya dengan menunjukan suatu keterpaduan dalam prosesnya, dengan mengingat hal itu, maka makna pentingnya manajemen semakin jelas bagi kehidupan manusia termasuk bidang pendidikan.

2. Konsep Administrasi/Manajemen Pendidikan

Setelah memperoleh gambaran tentang manajemen secara umum maka pemahaman tentang manajemen pendidikan akan lebih mudah, karena dari segi prinsip serta fungsi-fungsinya nampaknya tidak banyak berbeda, perbedaan akan terlihat dalam substansi yang dijadikan objek kajiannya yakni segala sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan masalah pendidikan.

Oteng Sutisna (1989:382) menyatakan bahwa Administrasi pendidikan hadir dalam tiga bidang perhatian dan kepentingan yaitu : (1) setting Administrasi pendidikan (geografi, demograpi, ekonomi, ideologi, kebudayaan, dan pembangunan); (2) pendidikan (bidang garapan Administrasi); dan (3) substansi administrasi pendidikan (tugas-tugasnya, prosesnya, asas-asasnya, dan prilaku administrasi), hal ini makin memperkuat bahwa manajemen/administrasi pendidikan mempunyai bidang dengan cakupan luas yang saling berkaitan, sehingga pemahaman tentangnya memerlukan wawasan yang luas serta antisipatif terhadap berbagai perubahan yang terjadi di masyarakat disamping pendalaman dari segi perkembangan teori dalam hal manajemen/administrasi.

Dalam kaitannya dengan makna manajemen/Administrasi Pendidikan berikut ini akan dikemukakan beberapa pengertian manajemen pendidikan yang dikemukakan para ahli. Dalam hubungan ini penulis mengambil pendapat yang mempersamakan antara Manajemen dan Administrasi terlepas dari kontroversi tentangnya, sehingga dalam tulisan ini kedua istilah itu dapat dipertukarkan dengan makna yang sama.

Tabel 2.2.

Pendapat Pakar tentang Administrasi/manajemen Pendidikan
No
Pengertian Administrasi/manajemen Pendidikan
Pendapat

1.
Administrasi pendidikan dapat diartikan sebagai keseluruhan proses kerjasama dengan memanfaatkan semua sumber personil dan materil yang tersedia dan sesuai untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan yang telah ditetapkan secara efektif dan efisien…
Djam’an Satori, (1980: 4)

2.
Dalam pendidikan, manajemen itu dapat diartikan sebagai aktivitas memadukan sumber-sumber pendidikan agar terpusat dalam usaha mencapai tujuan pendidikan yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya
Made Pidarta, (1988:4)

3.
Manajemen pendidikan ialah proses perencanaan, peng-organisasian, memimpin, mengendalikan tenaga pendidikan, sumber daya pendidikan untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan, mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa, mengembangkan manusia seutuhnya, yaitu manusia yang beriman, bertakwa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, berbudi pekerti yang luhur, memiliki pengetahuan, keterampilan, kesehatan jasmani dan rohani, kepribadian yang mantap, mandiri, serta bertanggung jawab kemasyarakat dan kebangsaan
Biro Perencanaan Depdikbud, (1993:4)

4.
educational administration is a social process that take place within the context of social system
Castetter. (1996:198)

5.
Manajemen pendidikan dapat didefinisikan sebagi proses perencanaan, pengorganisasian, memimpin, mengendalikan tenaga pendidikan, sumber daya pendidikan untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan…
Soebagio Atmodiwirio. (2000:23)

6.
Manajemen pendidikan ialah suatu ilmu yang mempelajari bagaimana menata sumber daya untuk mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan secara produktif dan bagaimana menciptakan suasana yang baik bagi manusia yang turut serta di dalam mencapai tujuan yang disepakati bersama
Engkoswara (2001:2)

dengan memperhatikan pengertian di atas nampak bahwa manajemen/administrasi pendidikan pada prinsipnya merupakan suatu bentuk penerapan manajemen atau administrasi dalam mengelola, mengatur dan mengalokasikan sumber daya yang terdapat dalam dunia pendidikan, fungsi administrasi pendidikan merupakan alat untuk mengintegrasikan peranan seluruh sumberdaya guna tercapainya tujuan pendidikan dalam suatu konteks sosial tertentu, ini berarti bahwa bidang-bidang yang dikelola mempunyai kekhususan yang berbeda dari manajemen dalam bidang lain.

Menurut Engkoswara (2001:2) wilayah kerja manajemen pendidikan dapat digambarkan secara skematik sebagai berikut :

Perorangan
Garapan Fungsi
SDM
SB
SFD

Perencanaan

TPP
Pelaksanaan

Pengawasan

Kelembagaan

Gambar 2.1.

Ruang Lingkup Manajemen Pendidikan

gambar di atas menunjukan suatu kombinasi antara fungsi manajemen dengan bidang garapan yakni sumber Daya manusia (SDM), Sumber Belajar (SB), dan

Sumber Fasilitas dan Dana (SFD), sehingga tergambar apa yang sedang dikerjakan dalam konteks manajemen pendidikan dalam upaya untuk mencapai Tujuan Pendidikan secara Produktif (TPP) baik untuk perorangan maupun kelembagaan

Lembaga pendidikan seperti organisasi sekolah merupakan kerangka kelembagaan dimana administrasi pendidikan dapat berperan dalam mengelola organisasi untuk mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan. Dilihat dari tingkatan-tingkatan suatu organisasi dalam hal ini sekolah, administrasi pendidikan dapat dilihat dalam tiga tingkatan yaitu tingkatan institusi (Institutional level), tingkatan manajerial (managerial level), dan tingkatan teknis (technical level) (Murphy dan Louis, 1999). Tingkatan institusi berkaitan dengan hubungan antara lembaga pendidikan (sekolah) dengan lingkungan eksternal, tingkatan manajerial berkaitan dengan kepemimpinan, dan organisasi lembaga (sekolah), dan tingkatan teknis berkaitan dengan proses pembelajaran. Dengan demikian manajemen pendidikan dalam konteks kelembagaan pendidikan mempunyai cakupan yang luas, disamping itu bidang-bidang yang harus ditanganinya juga cukup banyak dan kompleks dari mulai sumberdaya fisik, keuangan, dan manusia yang terlibat dalam kegiatan proses pendidikan di sekolah

Menurut Consortium on Renewing Education (Murphy dan Louis, ed. 1999:515) Sekolah (lembaga pendidikan) mempunyai lima bentuk modal yang perlu dikelola untuk keberhasilan pendidikan yaitu :
1. Integrative capital
2. Human capital
3. Financial capital
4. Social capital
5. Political capital

modal integratif adalah modal yang berkaitan dengan pengintegrasian empat modal lainnya untuk dapat dimanfaatkan bagi pencapaian program/tujuan pendidikan, modal manusia adalah sumberdaya manusia yang kemampuan untuk menggunakan pengetahuan bagi kepentingan proses pendidikan/pembelajaran, modal keuangan adalah dana yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan dan memperbaiki proses pendidikan, modal sosial adalah ikatan kepercayaan dan kebiasaan yang menggambarkan sekolah sebagai komunitas, dan modal politik adalah dasar otoritas legal yang dimiliki untuk melakukan proses pendidikan/pembelajaran.

Dengan pemahaman sebagaimana dikemukakan di atas, nampak bahwa salah satu fungsi penting dari manajemen pendidikan adalah berkaitan dengan proses pembelajaran, hal ini mencakup dari mulai aspek persiapan sampai dengan evaluasi untuk melihat kualitas dari suatu proses tersebut, dalam hubungan ini Sekolah sebagai suatu lembaga pendidikan yang melakukan kegiatan/proses pembelajaran jelas perlu mengelola kegiatan tersebut dengan baik karena proses belajar mengajar ini merupakan kegiatan utama dari suatu sekolah (Hoy dan Miskel 2001). Dengan demikian nampak bahwa Guru sebagai tenaga pendidik merupakan faktor penting dalam manajemen pendidikan, sebab inti dari proses pendidikan di sekolah pada dasarnya adalah guru, karena keterlibatannya yang langsung pada kegiatan pembelajaran di kelas. Oleh karena itu Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Pendidik dalam suatu lembaga pendidikan akan menentukan bagaimana kontribusinya bagi pencapaian tujuan, dan kinerja guru merupakan sesuatu yang harus mendapat perhatian dari fihak manajemen pendidikan di sekolah agar dapat terus berkembang dan meningkat kompetensinya dan dengan peningkatan tersebut kinerja merekapun akan meningkat, sehingga akan memberikan berpengaruh pada peningkatan kualitas pendidikan sejalan dengan tuntutan perkembangan global dewasa ini

Administrasi pendidikan dilihat dari berbagai aspek:
1. kerjasama; kerjasama dengan orang lain
2. proses; perencanaan,pengorganisasian, pengarahan, pemantauan dan penilaian
3. kerangka berpikir sistem; proses untuk mengubah masukan menjadi keluaran
4. manajemen; pemanfaatan sumber-sumber yang ada
5. kepemimpinan; menggerakkan orang lain untuk bekerja lebih giat dengan mempengaruhi dan mengawasi
6. pengambilan keputusan; memilih kemungkinan tindakan yang terbaik
7. komunikasi; untuk membuat orang lain mengerti apa yang kita maksudkan
8. ketatausahaan; mendokumentasikan kegiatan

Konsep administrasi pendidikan : sistem pendidikan nasional, dan sekolah sebagai bagian dari sistem pendidikan nasional.

Tujuan khusus pendidikan menengah: pengetahuan, ketrampilan, nilai dan sikap.

Proses sebagai fungsi andministrasi pendidikan menengah: perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pengarahan, pengkordinasian, pembiayaan, penilaian.

Lingkup bidang garapan administrasi pendidikan menengah:
– bentuk kerjasama personel
– suatu proses yang merupakan daur penyelenggaraan pendidikan
– manajemen
– memimpin, mengambil keputusan, komunikasi

Ciri-cirinya :
– adanya interaksi antara berbagai unsur sekolah
– adanya kegiatan:
a. yang berhubungan langsung dengan pengajaran sekaligus langsung dengan pengelolaan yakni kurikulum, supervisi
b. yang berhubungan langsung dengan pengelolaan tetapi tidak langsung dengan pengajaran yakni kemuridan, keuangan, prasaran dan sarana, kepegawaian, layanan khusus
c. yang tidak berhubungan langsung dengan pengajaran maupun dengan pengelolaan yakni Husemas, BP3

Peranan guru dalam administrasi pendidikan yaitu mengelola PBM

Peranan guru dalam administrasi sekolah menengah:
1. administrasi kurikulum
Kurikulum adalah semua pengalaman belajar yang diberikan sekolah kepada siswa.
2. pengembangan kurikulum
Penambahan mata pelajaran sesuai dengan lingkungan sekolah
3. pelaksanaan kurikulum
4. administrasi kesiswaan

Peranan guru dalam administrasi kesiswaan:
– menjadi panitia penerimaan siswa
– terlibat dalam masa orientasi siswa
– mencatat kehadiran siswa
– membuat grafik prestasi siswa
– menciptakan disiplin sekolah atau kelas yang baik

BIMBINGAN DAN KONSELING

February 9, 2010 at 1:20 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Pengertian Bimbingan dan Konseling

Pengertian Bimbingan
Pengertian bimbingan menurut Rochman Natawidjaja (1978) : Bimbingan adalah peroses pemberian bantuan kepada individu yang dilakukan secara berkesinambungan, supaya individu tersebut dapat memahami dirinya sehingga ida sanggup memahami diri dan dia dapat mengecap sesuai dengan tuntunan dan keadaan keluarga secara masyarakat. Dengan demikian dia dapat mengecap kebahagiaan hidupnya serta dapat memberi sumbangan yang berarti.

Pengertian bimbingan menurut Bimo Walgio (1982 : 11) Bimbingan adalah bantuan atau pertolongan yang diberikan kepada individu atau sekumpulan individu-individu dalam menghindari atau mengatasi kesulitan-esulitan didalam kehidupannya, agar individu atau sekumpulan individu-individu itu dapat mencapai kesejahteraan hidupnya.

Dari beberapa pengertian bimbingan yang dikemukakan oleh para ahli itu, dpaat dikemukakan bahwa bimbingan merupakan :
a) Suatu proses yang berkesinambungan.
b) Suatu proses yang membantu individu.
c) Bantuan yang diberikan itu dimaksudkan agar individu yang bersangkutan dapat mengarahkan dan mengambangkan dirinya secara optimal sesuai dengan kemampuan / potensinya.
d) Kegiatan yang bertujuan untuk memberikan bantuan agar individu dapat memahami keadaan dirinya dan mampu menyesuaikan dengan lingkungannya.

Pengertian Konseling
Banyak ahli yang memberikan makna tentang konseling. Menurut James P. Adam yang dikutip oleh Depdikbud (1976: I9a) : Konseling adalah suatu pertalian timbal balik antara dua orang individu di mana yang seorang (konselor) membantu yang lain (konseli) supaya dia dapat lebih baik memahami dirinya dalam hubungan jiwa dengan masalah hidup yang dihadapinya pada waktu itu dan pada waktu yang akan datang.

Berdasarkan pendapat-pendapat tersebut dapatlah dikatakan bahwa kegiatan konseling itu mempunyai ciri-ciri sebagai berikut :
a) Pada umumnya dilaksanakan secara adividual
b) Pada umumnya dilakukan dalam suatu perjumpaan tatap muka.
c) Untuk pelaksanaan konseling dibutuhkan orang yang ahli.
d) Tujuan pembelajaraan dalam proses konseling ini diarahkan untuk memecahkan masalah yang dihadapi klien.
e) Individu yang menerima layanan (klien) akhirnya marnpu memecahkan masalahnya dengan kemampuannya sendiri.

Tujuan Bimbingan di Sekolah
Layanan.bimbingan sangat dibutuhkan agar siswa-siswa yang mempunyai masalah sehingga mereka dapat belajar lebih baik. Dalam kurikulum SMA tahun 1975 Buku III C dinyatakan bahwa tujuan bimbingan di sekolah adalah membantu siswa :
1) Mengatasi kesulitan dalam belajarnya, sehingga memperoleh prestasi belajar yang tinggi.
2) Mengatasi terjadinya kebiasaan-kebiasaan yang tidak baik dilakukannya pada saat proses belajar-mengajar berjalan di dalam hubungan sosial.
3) Mengatasi kesulitan-kesulitan yang berhubungan dengan kesehatan jasmani
4) Mengatasi kesulitan-kesulitan yang berkaitan dengan kelanjutan studi.
5) Mengatasi kesulitan-kesulitan yang berhubungati gengan perencanaan dan pemilihan jenis pekerjaan setelah mereka tamat.
6) Mengatasi kesulitan-kesulitan yang berhubungan dengan masalah sosial emosional di sekolah yang bersumber dari sikap murid yang bersangkutan terhadap dirinya sendiri, terhadap lingkungan sekolah, keluarga, dan lingkungan yang lebih luas.

Peran Bimbingan dan Konseling dalam Pembelajaran Siswa
Dalam proses pembelajaran siswa. setiap guru mempunyai keinginan agar semua siswanya dapat memperoleh hasil belajar lebih baik dan memuaskan. Harapan tersebut sering kali kandas dan tidak bisa terwujud, sering mengalami berbagai macam kesulitan dalam belajar. Sebagai pertanda bahwa siswa mengalami kesulitaui dalam belajar dapat diketahui dari berbagai jenis gejalanya seperti dikemukakan Abu Ahmadi (1977) sebagai berikut:
1) Hasil belajarnya rendah, di bawah rata-rata kelas.
2) Hasil yang dicapai tidak seimbang dengan usaha yang dilakukannya.
3) Menunjukkan sikap yang kurang wajar : suka menentang, dusta, tidak mau menyelesaikan tugas-tugas, dan sebagainya.
4) Menunjukkan tingkah laku yang berlainan seperti suka membolos, suka mengganggu dan sebagainya.
Bimbingan dan koseling dapat memberikan layanan dalam:
(1) bimbingan belajar
(2) bimbingan sosial, dan
(3) bimbingan dalam mengatatasi masalah-masalah pribadi.

a. Bimbingan Belajar
Bimbingan ini dimaksudkan untuk mengatasi masalah-masalah yang berhubungan dengan kegiatan belajar baik di sekolah maupun di luar sekolah. Bimbingan ini antara lain meliputi:
 Cara belajar, baik belajar secara kelompok ataupun individual.
 Cara bagaimana merencanakan waktu dan kegiatan belajar.
 Efisiensi dalam menggunakan buku-buku pelajaran.
 Cara mengstasi kesulitan-kesulitan yang berkaitan dengan mata pelajuran tertentu.
 Cara, proses dan prosedur tentang mengikuti pelajaran.

b. Bimbingan Sosial
Bimbingan sosial ini dimaksudkan untuk membantu siswa dalam memecahkan dan mengatasi kesulitan-kesulitan yang berkaitan dengan masalah sosial, sehingga terciptalah suasana belaiar-mengajar yang kondusif. Menurut Abu Ahmadi (1977) bimbingan sosial ini dimaksudkan untuk :
 Memperoleh kelompok belajar dan bermain yang sesuai.
 Membantu memperoleh persahabatan yang sesuai.
 Membantu mendapatkan kelompok sosial untuk memecahkan masalah tertentu.
Di samping itu, bimbingan sosial juga dimaksudkan agar siswa dapat melakukan penyesuaian diri terhadap teman sebayanya baik di sekolah maupun di sekolah (Downing, 1978).

c. Bimbingan dalam Mengatasi Masalah-Masalah Pribadi
Kurikulum SMA tahun 1975 Buku III C tentang Pedoman Bimbingan dan Penyuluhan dinyatakan ada beberapa masalah pribadi yang memerlukan bantuan konseling, yaitu masalah akibat konflik antara :
 Perkembangan intelektual dengan emosionalnya.
 Bakat dengan aspirasi lingkungannya.
 Kehendak siswa dengan orang tua atau lingkungannya.
 Kepentingan siswa dengan orang tua atau lingkungannya.
 Situasi sekolah dengan situasi lingkungan.

Masalah-masalah pribadi ini juga sering ditimbulkan oleh hubungan mudamudi. Selanjutnya juga dikemukakan oleh Downing (1968) bahwa layanan bimbingan di sekolah sangat bermanfaat terutama dalam membantu :
 Menciptakan suasana hubungan sosial yang menyenangkan.
 Menciptakan atau mewujudkan pengalaman belajar yang lebih bermakna.
 Meningkatkan motivasi belajar siswa.
 Menciptakan timbulnya minat belajar.

Landasan Bimbingan dan Konseling Winkel (1991)
landasan-landasan itu adalah sebagai berikut :
a. Bimbingan selalu memperhatikan perkembangan siswa sebagai individu yang mandiri dan mempunyai potensi untuk berkembang.
b. Bimbing berkisar pada dunia subjektif masing-masing individu.
c. Kegiatan bimbingan dilaksanakan atas dasar kesepakatan antara pembimbing dengan yang dibimbing.
d. Pelayanan ditujukan kepada semua siswa, tidak hanya untuk individu yang bermasalah saja.
e. Bimbingan merupakan suatu proses, yaitu bedangsun secara terus-menerus, berkesinambungan, berurutan, dan mengikuti tahap-tahap perkembangan anak.

Prinsip-Prinsip Operasional Bimbingan dan Konseling di Sekolah

a) Prinsip-prinsip Umum
Prinsip-prinsip umum ini antara lain :
 Karena bimbingan itu berhubungan dengan sikap dan tingkah laku individu, perlu diingat bahwa sikap dan tingkah laku itu terbentuk dari segala aspek kepribadian yang unik dan ruwet, sikap dan tingkah laku tersebut dipengaruhi oleh pengalaman-pengalamannya. Oleh karena itu, dalam pemberian layanan perlu dikaji kehidupan masa lalu klien, yang diperkirakan mempengaruhi timbulnya masalah tersebut.
 Perlu dikenal dan dipahami karakteri individual dari individu yang dibimbing.
 Bimbingan diarahkan kepada bantuan yang diberikan supayaindividu yang bersangkutan mampu membantu atau menolong dirinya sendiri dalam menghadapi kesulitan-kesulitannya.
 Program bimbingan harus sesuat dengan program pendidikan di sekolah yang bersangkutan

b) Prinsip-Prinsip Khusus yang Berhubungan dengan Individual yang Memberikan Bimbingan
 Konselor di sekolah dipilih atas dasar kualifikasi kepribadian, pendidikan, pengalaman, dan kemampuannya.
 Konselor harus mendapat kesempatan untuk mengembangkan dirinya serta keahliannya melalui berbaga latihan penataran.
 Konselor hendaknya selalu mempergunakan informasi yang tersedia mengenai individu yang dibimbing beserta lingkungannya, sebagai bahan untuk membantu individu yang bersangkutan ke arah penyesuaian diri yang lebih baik.
 Konselor harus menghormati dan menjaga kerahasiaan informasi tentang individu yang dibimbingnya.

Asas-Asas Bimbingan dan Konseling
Asas adalah hal yang harus dipenuhi dalam melaksanakan suatu kegiatan tersebut dapat terlaksana dengan baik. Menurut Priyatno (1982) ada beberapa asas yang perlu diperhatikan, yaitu :
a. Asas Kerahasiaan
b. Asas Keterbukaan
c. Asas Kesukarelaan
d. Asas Kekinian
e. Asas Kegiatan
f. Asas Kedinamisan
g. Asas Keterpaduan
h. Asas kenormatifan
i. Asas Keahlian
j. Asas Alih Tangan
k. Asas Tut Wuri Handayani

Orientasi Layanan Bimbingan dan Konseling
Menurut Humphreys dan Traxler (1954) sikap dasar pekerjaan bimbingan itu ialah bahwa individual merupakan suatu hal yang sangat penting. Prayitno (1982) menyatakan bahwa layanan bimbingan dan konseling harus berorientasi pada masalah-masalah yang dihadapi oleh klien pada saat ia berkonsultasi. Dengan istilah lain disebutkan asas kekinian. Ini berarti bahwa layanan bimbingan dan konseling harus berpusat/berorientasi pada masalah yang dihadapi oleh klien. Layanan bimbingan dan konseling hendaknya menekankan pada (a) Orientasi individual, (b) Orientasi perkembangan siswa, dan (c) Orientasi permasalahan yang dihadapi siswa.

Kode Etik Bimbingan dan Konseling
Untuk menyatakan pandangan tentang kode etik jabatan, berikut ini dikemukakan suatu rumusan dari Winkel (1992): “Kode etik jabatan ialah pola ketentuan/aturan/tata cara yang menjadi pedoman dalam menjalankan tugas dan aktivitas suatu profesi.” Sehubungan dengan itu, Bimo Walgito (1980) mengemukakan berapa butir rumusan kode etik bimbingan dan konseling sebagai berikut :
a) Pembimbing atau pejabat lain yang memegang jabatan dalam bidang bimbingan dan penyuluhan harus memegang teguh Prinsif-prinsif bimbingan dan konseling.
b) Pembimbing harus berusaha semaksimal mungkin untuk dapat mencapai hasil yang sebaik-baiknya, dengan membatasi diri pada keahliannya atau wewenangnya. Karena itu, pembimbing jangan sampai mencampuri wewenang serta tanggun jawab yang bukan wewenang serta tanggung jawabnya.

Seorang pembimbing harus :
 Dapat memegang atau menyimpan rahasia klien dengan sebaik-baiknya.
 Menunjukkan sikap hormat kepada klien.
 Menunjukkan penghargaan yang sama kepada bermacam-macam klien.
 Meminta bantuan ahli dalam bidang lain di luar kemampuan atau diluar keahliannya ataupun di luar keahlian stafnya yang diperlukan dalam melaksanakan bimbingan dan konseling.
 Pembimbing harus selalu menyadari akan tanggung jawabnya yang berat yang memerlukan pengabdian penuh.

PARADIGMA BIMBINGAN DAN KONSELING
– BK merupakan pelayanan psiko-paedagogis dalam bingkai budayaIndonesia dan religius.
-Arah BK mengembangkan kompetensi siswa untuk mampu memenuhi tugas-tugas perkembangannya secara optimal.
-Membantu siswa agar mampu mengatasiberbagai permasalahan yang mengganggu dan menghambat perkembangannya.

VISI BIMBINGAN DAN KONSELING
Terwujudnya perkembangan diri dan kemandirian secara optimal dengan hakekat kemanusiaannya sebagai hamba Tuhan YME, sebagai makhluk individu, dan makhluk sosial dalam berhubungan dengan manusia dan alam semesta.

MISI BIMBINGAN DAN KONSELING
Menunjang perkembangan diri dan kemandirian siswa untuk dapat menjalani kehidupannya sehari-hari sebagai siswa secara efektif, kreatif, dan dinamis serta memiliki kecakapan hidup untuk masa depan karir dalam:
(1)Beriman dan bertaqwa terhadap Tuhan YME;
(2)Pemahaman perkembangan diri dan lingkungan;
(3)Pengarahan diri ke arah dimensi spiritual;
(4)Pengambilan keputusan berdasarkan IQ, EQ, dan SQ; dan
(5)Pengaktualisasian diri secara optimal.

LAYANAN ORIENTASI
Layanan BK yang memungkinkan peserta didik memahami lingkungan yang baru dimasuki, untuk mempermudah dan memperlancar berperannya peserta didik di lingkungan yang baru itu

LAYANAN INFORMASI
Layanan BK yang memungkinkan peserta didik menerima dan memahami berbagai informasi yang dapat dipergunakan sebagai bahan pertimbangan dan pengambilan keputusan untuk kepentingan peserta didik.

LAYANAN PEMBELAJARAN
Layanan BK yang memungkinkan peserta didik mengembangkan diri berkenaan dengan sikap dan kebiasaan yang baik, materi belajar yang cocok dengan kecepatan dan kesulitan belajarnya, serta berbagai aspek tujuan dan kegiatan belajar lainnya.

LAYANAN PENEMPATAN DAN PENYALURAN
Layanan BK yang memungkinkan peserta didik memperoleh penempatan dan penyaluran yang tepat (di dalam kelas, kelompok belajar, program studi, program latihan, magang, ko/ekstra kurikuler, dll) sesuai dengan potensi, bakat dan minat, serta kondisi pribadinya.

LAYANAN KONSELING PERORANGAN
Layanan BK yang memungkinkan peserta didik mendapatkan layanan langsung tatap muka (secara perorangan) dengan guru pembimbing dalam rangka pembahasan dan pengentasan masalah pribadi yang dideritanya.

LAYANAN BIMBINGAN KELOMPOK
Layanan BK yang memungkinkan sejumlah peserta didik secara bersama-sama melalui dinamika kelompok memperoleh berbagai bahan dari nara sumber tertentu dan/atau membahas secara bersama-sama pokok bahasan (topik) tertentu yang berguna untuk menunjang pemahaman dan kehidupannya mereka sehari-hari dan/atau untuk pengembangan diri baik sebagai individu maupun sebagai siswa, dan untuk pengembilan keputusan dan/atau tindakan tertentu.

LAYANAN KONSELING KELOMPOK
Layanan BK yang memungkinkan peserta didik memperoleh kesempatan untuk pembahasan dan pengentasan masalah yang dialaminya melalui dinamika kelompok; masalah yang dibahas itu adalah masalah-masalah pribadi yang dialami oleh masing-masing anggota kelompok.

KEGIATAN PENDUKUNG BIMBINGAN DAN KONSELING
1.APLIKASIINSTRUMENTASI BK(TES/ NON-TES)
2.HIMPUNAN DATA (PRIBADI SISWA, PRESTASI, OBSERVASI, ABSENSI, CATATAN KEJADIAN)
3.KONFERENSI KASUS
4.KUNJUNGAN RUMAH
5.ALIH TANGAN KASUS

APLIKASI INSTRUMENTASI
Kegiatan pendukung BK untuk mengumpulkan data dan keterangan tentang diri dan lingkungan peserta didik. Pengumpulan data ini dapat dilakukan dengan berbagai instrumen, baik tes maupun non tes.

HIMPUNAN DATA
Kegiatan pendukung BK untuk menghimpun seluruh data dan keterangan yang relevan dengan keperluan pengembangan peserta didik. Himpunan data perlu diselenggarakan secara berkelanjutan, sistematik, komprehensif, terpadu, dan sifatnya tertutup.

KONFERENSI KASUS
Kegiatan pendukung BK untuk membahas permasalahan yang dialami oleh peserta dalam suatu forum pertemuan yang dihadiri oleh berbagai fihak yang diharapkan dapat memberikan bahan, keterangan, kemudahan dan komitmen bagi terentaskannya permasalahan tersebut. Pertemuan dalam rangka konferensi kasus bersifat terbatas dan tertutup.

KUNJUNGAN RUMAH
Kegiatan pendukung BK untuk memperoleh data, keterangan, kemudahan dan komitmen bagi terentaskannya permasalahan peserta didik melalui kunjungan ke rumahnya. Kegiatan ini memerlukan kerjasama yang penuh dari orang tua dan anggota keluarga lainnya.

ALIH TANGAN KASUS
Kegiatan pendukung BK untuk mendapatkan penanganan yang lebih tepat dan tuntas atas masalah yang dialami peserta didik dengan memindahkan penanganan kasus dari satu pihak ke pihak lainnya. Kegiatan ini memerlukan kerjasama yang erat dan mantap antara berbagai pihak yang dapat memberikan bantuan atas penanganan masalah tersebut

KETENAGAAN DALAM PENGELOLAAN PROGRAM BK
– Guru BK:
Konselor, adalah guru yang berlatar-belakang pendidikan BK yang melakukan: perencanaan, pelaksanaan, evaluasi/ penilaian, analisis, dan tindak lanjut program dan kegiatan layanan BK.
Guru Pembimbing, adalah Konselor dan Guru yang ditugaskan dalam penyelenggaraan bimbingan.
-Guru Mata Pelajaran, adalah mitra kerja Guru BK dalam pelaksanaan program BK.
-Wali Kelas, adalah mitra kerja dalam pelayanan BK.
-Kepala Sekolah, adalah penanggung jawab menyeluruh kegiatan sekolah, termasuk kegiatan BK.

PENYUSUNAN PROGRAM BIMBINGAN DAN KONSELING
-Didasarkan KEBUTUHAN NYATA siswa
-LENGKAP dan MENYELURUH (memuat segenap fungsi BK)
-SISTEMATIS (disusun menurut urutan logis, singkron, dan tidak tumpang tindih).
-TERBUKA dan LUWES (mudah menerima masukan tanpa harus merombah program secara menyeluruh)
-Memungkinkan KERJASAMA dengan pihak terkait
-Dimungkinkan PENILAIAN dan TINDAK LANJUT.

KESIMPULAN
Perkembangan kemampuani siswa secara optimal untuk berkreasi, mandiri, bertanggung jawab dan memecahkan masalah merupakan tanggung jawab yang besar dari kegiatan pendidikan. Oleh karena itu, pemahaman potensi pribadi sangat penting untuk perkembangan siswa sebagai manusia yang utuh. Di samping itu, dalam perkembangannya, siswa sering kali menghadapi masalah yang tidak nampu dipecahkan sendiri, sehingga mengganggu keberhasilan belajarnya. Untuk membantu proses perkembangan pribadi dan mengatas masalah yang dihadapi sering kali siswa memerlukan bantuan profesional. Sekolah harus dapat menyediakan layanan profesional yang dimaksud berupa layanan bimbingan dan konseling, karena sekolah merupakan lingkungan akan yang terpenting sesudah keluarga. layanan ini dalam batas tertentu dapat dilakukan guru. tetapi jika masalahnya berat diperlukan petugas khusus konselor untuk mengatasinya.
Menurut jenis permasalahannya guru atau konselor dapat memberikan bantuan dalam bentuk: (a) bimbingan belajar, (b) bimbingan sosial, dan (c) bimbingan dalam mengatasi masalah pribadi. Semua bimbingan ini didasarkan atas prinsip, asas, orientasi, dan etika profesional.

Jenis-jenis lingkungan pendidikan

February 9, 2010 at 12:36 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Pengertian lingkungan pendidikan; segala sesuatu yang ada di luar diri anak dalam alam semesta ini yang menjadi wadah atau wahana, badan atau lembaga berlangsungnya proses pendidikan.

Jenis-jenis lingkungan pendidikan:

Lingkungan alam; adalah segala sesuatu yang ada di dunia ini yang berada di luar diri anak yang bukan manusia, seperti tumbuh-tumbuhan, iklim, air, gedung, dan rumah.

Lingkungan sosial; adalah semua manusia yang berada di luar diri seseorang yang dapat mempengaruhi diri orang tersebut. Teman sekolah, teman sejawat, atau orang sekitar tempat tinggal merupakan lingkungan sosial yang bersifat langsung. Sedangkan program-program televisi, radio, surat kabar atau media cetak lainnya termasuk lingkungan sosial tidak langsung.

Menurut tempat pelaksanaan pendidikan, dapat dibedakan atas: keluarga, sekolah, dan masyarakat.
Sedangkan menurut Langeveld adalah keluarga, sekolah, dan negara.
Dan menurut Ki Hajar Dewantara adalah : keluarga, sekolah, dan perkumpulan pemuda (dikenal dengan sebutan Tri Centra atau Tri Pusat Pendidikan).
Keluarga sebagai lembaga pendidikan mempunyai fungsi sebagai: pendidik pertama, pendidik utama, dan informal.

Fungsi sekolah:
– sebagai pusat, lembaga, lingkungan pendidikan, wiyata mandala yang berfungsi untuk menyelenggarakan proses belajar mengajar yang dilaksanakan secara terencana, tertib dan teratur.
– sekolah berfungsi sosialisasi; adalah suatu proses dimana kita mempelajari cara-cara hidup bermasyarakat.
– sebagai konservatori dan transmisi nilai-nilai budaya.
– sebagai miniatur masyarakat, artinya sekolah hendaknya menggambarkan kehidupan dari masyarakat.
– sebagai masyarakat yang ideal, artinya bahwa dalam masyarakat terdapat berbagai corak kehidupan yaitu mempunyai nilai baik dan buruk.

Aliran Klasik dalam pendidikan:
– Empirisme (John Lock 1622-1700 Inggris); bahwa perkembangan pribadi anak ditentukan oleh faktor-faktor lingkungan.
– Nativisme (Arthur Schopenhauer 1788-1860 Yunani); bahwa hasil akhir pendidikan dan perkembangan ditentukan oleh pembawaan yang diperolehnya sejak lahir.
– Naturalisme (J.J. Rouseau 1712-1778 Perancis); bahwa pendidik hanya wajib membiarkan pertumbuhan anak didik dengan sendirinya, serahkan saja pada alam.
– Konvergensi (William Stern 1871-1939 Jerman); bahwa hasil pendidikan itu tergantung dari pembawaan dan lingkungan seakan-akan dua garis yang menuju ke satu titik pertemuan.

Aliran Baru dalam pendidikan:
pengajaran alam sekitar
Konsespi: manusia hidup dalam lingkungan tertentu dan terikat pada lingkungannya serta tidak dapat dilepaskan dari lingkungannya.
Langkah-langkah pokok: menetapkan tujuan, mengadakan persiapan, melakukan pengamatan, dan mengolah apa yang diamati.

- pengajaran pusat perhatian
Konsepsi: didasarkan pada pengajaran alam sekitar yang obyek-obyek pengamatannya dititik beratkan pada hal-hal yang menarik perhatian anak didik dan manusia pada umumnya dalam menjalankan perkembangan hidupnya.
Asas-asas: pengajaran alam sekitar, didasarkan atas kebutuhan anak dalam hidup dan perkembangannya, setiap bahan pengajaran harus merupakan suatu keseluruhan, hubungan saling membutuhkan dan saling memberi arti, anak didorong dan dirangsang untuk selalu aktif, harus ada hubungan kerjasama yang erat antara rumah dan sekolah.

- sekolah kerja
Konsepsi: lahir dalam kaitannya dengan aliran pendidikan sosial yang berkembang dari aliran pendidikan individual yang ekstrem dan pendidikan sosial yang ekstrem.
Dasar-dasar: anak aktif dan mandiri, anak sebagai pusat kegiatan, tidak mementingkan pengetahuan siap yang bersifat hafalan.
Macam-macam sekolah kerja: sosiologis, psikologis, sosiologis-psikologis, kepribadian.

- pengajaran proyek
Konsepsi: pengajaran itu harus aktif, ilmiah dan masyarakat.
Langkah-langkah: persiapan, kegiatan belajar, penilaian.

Empat konsepsi dasar dalam pendidikan:
– Perenialisme; sebagai suatu aliran dalam pendidikan bersifat keagamaan.
– Progresivisme; bahwa segala sesuatu tidak ada yang tetap, melainkan selalu mengalami perubahan.
– Esensialisme; menghendaki suatu keadaan atau tata tertib masyarakat seperti yang berlangsung dalam masa yang mendahului abad XX
– Rekonstruksionisme; mengehendaki semua dibikin baru dan semua dibikin berubah.

Dua aliran pokok pendidikan di Indonesia:
Perguruan Kebangsaan Taman siswa (Ki Hajar Dewantara)
Asas-asas: menjadi hak seseorang mengatur dirinya sendiri, pengajaran harus membimbing anak menjadi manusia yang merdeka, pendidikan harus didasarkan atas kebudayaan bangsa sendiri tanpa mengesampingkan kebudayaan bangsa-bangsa lain, pendidikan harus merata untuk seluruh rakyat, harus hidup dan berkembang dengan kekuatan sendiri dan menolak setiap bantuan, pendidik harus berhamba kepada san anak atas dasar sikap tanpa pamrih dan dengan hati yang suci.
Panca Dharma: dasar kemanusiaan, dasar kebangsaan, dasar kebudyaan, dasar kodrat hidup / kodrat alam, dasar kemerdekaan.
Corak pendidikan nasional (kemanusiaan, kebangsaan, kebudayaan) dan sistem among (kodrat hidup dan kemerdekaan)

- Ruang pendidikan INS
Tujuan:
– mendidik rakyat ke arah kemerdekaan
– memberi pendidikan sesuai kebutuhan masyarakat
– mendidik para pemuda agar berguna untuk masyarakat
– menanamkan kepercayaan kepada diri sendiri dan berani bertanggung jawab
– berusaha dapat berdiri sendiri dan tidak bersedia menerima bantuan dari orang lain yang mengurangi kebebasan

Bidang-bidang kegiatan pendidikan INS:
– pendidikan ketrampilan
– pendidikan pertanian
– pendidikan karya seni
– pendidikan manajemen

Masalah-masalah pokok pendidikan :

Masalah kurangnya biaya untuk menyelenggarakan sekolah-sekolah, kurikulum yang tidak lagi sesuai dengan tuntutan kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, terasingnya sekolah dari masyarakat, moral para guru merosot, masalah drop-out, masalah banyaknya anak yang tidak mendapatkan pekerjaan, masalah banyaknya anak yang tidak ditampung di sekolah-sekolah. (St. Vembriarto, 1981)

Banjir murid, langkanya sumber daya dan dana, biaya pendidikan yang semakin mahal, ketidak tepatan hasil pendidikan, serta kelambanan dan ketidak efisienan dalam penyelenggaraan sekolah. (P.H. Coombs, 1968)

Kualitas proses dan hasil pendidikan belum merata di seluruh tanah air. (H. Zahara Idris, 1992)

Sejarah telah membuktikan bahwa dari masa ke masa peradaban masyarakat dunia selalu mengalami perkembangan. Dan pada dekade waktu yang terakhir ini laju perkembangan itu telah meningkat dengan pesat, terutama di negara-negara maju. Sebagaimana diketahui dalam kurun waktu yang relatif singkat, telah terjadi pergeseran dari era pertanian menuju ke era industri dan selanjutnya belum sampai proses pergeseran itu tuntas, telah disusul dengan pergeseran baru menuju era informasi dan era globalisasi. (Wahjoetomo, 1993)

Pada dasarnya manusia dapat belajar sendiri, tetapi mungkin hanya sebagian kecil saja yang berhasil mencapai tingkat pengetahuan dan kemampuan yang diminta. Maka pendidikan sekolah merupakan sarana yang efektif. (Wiranto Arismunandar, 1990)

Penggunaan teknologi baru dalam pendidikan akan membawa perubahan dan pergeseran dalam peranan guru di kelas. (Oteng Sutisna, 1977)

Masalah tenaga kependidikan merupakan masalah yang amat rumit karena menyangkut faktor-faktor: jumlah, mutu, distribusi menurut bidang studi, distribusi menurut wilayah, status serta imbalan maupun penghargaan terhadap jasanya ataupun pelayanan terhadapnya. (Tisna Amijaya, 1979)

Keadaan umum di lapangan kebanyakan guru belum profesional, mereka lebih banyak mengajar dengan pola tradisional, bersifat statis, kurang terbuka terhadap pembaruan atau inovasi, lambat berkembang dalam jabatan, sehingga menghambat peningkatan proses balajar mengajar. Oleh karena itu perlu diadakan usaha untuk melakukan pembaruan struktur pendidikan guru. (Ansyar & Nurtain, 1991)

Tenses

February 8, 2010 at 9:19 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Types of Verbs

Before you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are divided into three groups: Normal Verbs, Non-Continuous Verbs, and Mixed Verbs.

Group I Normal Verbs
Most verbs are “Normal Verbs.” These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses.

Normal Verbs
to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch, etc.

Examples:
I eat dinner every day.
I am eating dinner now.

Group II Non-Continuous Verbs
The second group, called “Non-Continuous Verbs,” is smaller. These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in continuous tenses. They include:

Abstract Verbs
to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist…

Possession Verbs
to possess, to own, to belong…

Emotion Verbs
to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind…

Examples:
He is needing help now. Not Correct
He needs help now. Correct
He is wanting a drink now. Not Correct
He wants a drink now. Correct

Group III Mixed Verbs
The third group, called “Mixed Verbs,” is the smallest group. These verbs have more than one meaning. In a way, each meaning is a unique verb. Some meanings behave like “Non-Continuous Verbs,” while other meanings behave like “Normal Verbs.”

Mixed Verbs

to appear, to feel, to have, to hear, to look, to see, to weigh…
List of Mixed Verbs with Examples and Definitions:

to appear:
Donna appears confused. Non-Continuous Verb
Donna seems confused.
My favorite singer is appearing at the jazz club tonight. Normal Verb
My favorite singer is giving a performance at the jazz club tonight.

to have:
I have a dollar now. Non-Continuous Verb
I possess a dollar.
I am having fun now. Normal Verb
I am experiencing fun now.

to hear:
She hears the music. Non-Continuous Verb
She hears the music with her ears.
She is hearing voices. Normal Verb
She hears something others cannot hear. She is hearing voices in her mind.

to look:
Nancy looks tired. Non-Continuous Verb
She seems tired.
Farah is looking at the pictures. Normal Verb
She is looking with her eyes.

to miss:
John misses Sally. Non-Continuous Verb
He is sad because she is not there.
Debbie is missing her favorite TV program. Normal Verb
She is not there to see her favorite program.

to see:
I see her. Non-Continuous Verb
I see her with my eyes.
I am seeing the doctor. Normal Verb
I am visiting or consulting with a doctor. (Also used with dentist and lawyer.)
I am seeing her. Normal Verb
I am having a relationship with her.
He is seeing ghosts at night. Normal Verb
He sees something others cannot see. For example ghosts, aura, a vision of the future, etc.

to smell:
The coffee smells good. Non-Continuous Verb
The coffee has a good smell.
I am smelling the flowers. Normal Verb
I am sniffing the flowers to see what their smell is like.

to taste:
The coffee tastes good. Non-Continuous Verb
The coffee has a good taste.
I am tasting the cake. Normal Verb
I am trying the cake to see what it tastes like.

to think:
He thinks the test is easy. Non-Continuous Verb
He considers the test to be easy.
She is thinking about the question. Normal Verb
She is pondering the question, going over it in her mind.

to weigh:
The table weighs a lot. Non-Continuous Verb
The table is heavy.
She is weighing herself. Normal Verb
She is determining her weight.
Some Verbs Can Be Especially Confusing:

to be:
Joe is American. Non-Continuous Verb
Joe is an American citizen.
Joe is being very American. Normal Verb
Joe is behaving like a stereotypical American.
Joe is being very rude. Normal Verb
Joe is behaving very rudely. Usually he is not rude.
Joe is being very formal. Normal Verb
Joe is behaving very formally. Usually he is not formal.

NOTICE: Only rarely is “to be” used in a continuous form. This is most commonly done when a person is temporarily behaving badly or stereotypically. It can also be used when someone’s behavior is noticeably different.

to feel:
The massage feels great. Non-Continuous Verb
The massage has a pleasing feeling.
I don’t feel well today. Sometimes used as Non-Continuous Verb
I am a little sick.
I am not feeling well today. Sometimes used as Normal Verb
I am a little sick.

NOTICE: The second meaning of “feel” is very flexible and there is no real difference in meaning between “I don’t feel well today” and “I am not feeling well today.”

Active / Passive Verb Forms
Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have “active forms” and “passive forms.” You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.

Active Form
In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Examples:

Passive Form
In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Examples:

Active / Passive Overview
Active Passive
Simple Present Once a week, Tom cleans the house. Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.

Present Continuous Right now, Sarah is writing the letter. Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.

Simple Past Sam repaired the car. The car was repaired by Sam.

Past Continuous The salesman was helping the customerThe customer was being helped by the salesman
when the thief came into the store. when the thief came into the store.

Present Perfect Many tourists have visited that castle. That castle has been visited by many tourists.

Present Perfect Continuous Recently, John has been doing Recently, the work has been being done
the work. by John.

Past Perfect George had repaired many cars before Many cars had been repaired by George before
he received his mechanic’s license. he received his mechanic’s license.

Past Perfect Continuous Chef Jones had been preparing The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been
the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for being prepared by Chef Jones for two years
two years before he moved to Paris. before he moved to Paris.

Simple Future
will Someone will finish the work by The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
5:00 PM.
Simple Future
be going to Sally is going to make a beautiful A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally
dinner tonight. tonight.

Future Continuous
will At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being
washing the dishes. washed by John.

Future Continuous
be going to At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going
to be washing the dishes. to be being washed by John.

Future Perfect
will They will have completed the project The project will have been completed
before the deadline. before the deadline.

Future Perfect
be going to They are going to have completed The project is going to have been completed
the project before the deadline. before the deadline.

Future Perfect Continuous
will The famous artist will have been The mural will have been being painted
painting the mural for over six months by the famous artist for over six months
by the time it is finished. by the time it is finished.

Future Perfect Continuous
be going to The famous artist is going to have been The mural is going to have been being
painting the mural for over six months painted by the famous artist for
by the time it is finished. over six months by the time it is finished.

Used to Jerry used to pay the bills. The bills used to be paid by Jerry.

Would Always My mother would always make the pies. The pies would always be made by my mother.

Future in the Past
Would I knew John would finish the work I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
by 5:00 PM.

Future in the Past
Was Going to I thought Sally was going to make I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be
a beautiful dinner tonight. made by Sally tonight.

Simple Present

FORM
[VERB] + s/es in third person

Examples:
You speak English.
Do you speak English?
You do not speak English.

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.
Examples:
I play tennis.
She does not play tennis.
Does he play tennis?
The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
The train does not leave at 9 AM.
When does the train usually leave?
She always forgets her purse.
He never forgets his wallet.
Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
Does the Sun circle the Earth?

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.
Examples:
Cats like milk.
Birds do not like milk.
Do pigs like milk?
California is in America.
California is not in the United Kingdom.
Windows are made of glass.
Windows are not made of wood.
New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.
Examples:
The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.
When do we board the plane?
The party starts at 8 o’clock.
When does class begin tomorrow?

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.
Examples:
I am here now.
She is not here now.
He needs help right now.
He does not need help now.
He has his passport in his hand.
Do you have your passport with you?

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You only speak English.
Do you only speak English?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active
Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. Passive

Present Continuous

FORM
[am/is/are + present participle]

Examples:
You are watching TV.
Are you watching TV?
You are not watching TV.

USE 1 Now

Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.
Examples:
You are learning English now.
You are not swimming now.
Are you sleeping?
I am sitting.
I am not standing.
Is he sitting or standing?
They are reading their books.
They are not watching television.
What are you doing?
Why aren’t you doing your homework?

USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now

In English, “now” can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.
Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)
I am studying to become a doctor.
I am not studying to become a dentist.
I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.
I am not reading any books right now.
Are you working on any special projects at work?
Aren’t you teaching at the university now?

USE 3 Near Future

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.
Examples:
I am meeting some friends after work.
I am not going to the party tonight.
Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
Isn’t he coming with us tonight?

USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with “Always”

The Present Continuous with words such as “always” or “constantly” expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words “always” or “constantly” between “be” and “verb+ing.”
Examples:
She is always coming to class late.
He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up.
I don’t like them because they are always complaining.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Present.
Examples:
She is loving this chocolate ice cream. Not Correct
She loves this chocolate ice cream. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You are still watching TV.
Are you still watching TV?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
Right now, Tom is writing the letter. Active
Right now, the letter is being written by Tom. Passive

Simple Past

FORM
[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs

Examples:
You called Debbie.
Did you call Debbie?
You did not call Debbie.

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
Examples:
I saw a movie yesterday.
I didn’t see a play yesterday.
Last year, I traveled to Japan.
Last year, I didn’t travel to Korea.
Did you have dinner last night?
She washed her car.
He didn’t wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
Examples:
I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
Examples:
I lived in Brazil for two years.
Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
They sat at the beach all day.
They did not stay at the party the entire time.
We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
A: How long did you wait for them?
B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in the Past

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as “used to.” To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

Examples:
I studied French when I was a child.
He played the violin.
He didn’t play the piano.
Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
She worked at the movie theater after school.
They never went to school, they always skipped class.

USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression “used to.”
Examples:
She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
He didn’t like tomatoes before.
Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First
Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word “when” such as “when I dropped my pen…” or “when class began…” These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.
Examples:
When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.

When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether “when I paid her one dollar” is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.
Example:
I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You just called Debbie.
Did you just call Debbie?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
Tom repaired the car. Active
The car was repaired by Tom. Passive

Past Continuous

FORM
[was/were + present participle]

Examples:
You were studying when she called.
Were you studying when she called?
You were not studying when she called.

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past

Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.
Examples:
I was watching TV when she called.
When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.
While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
What were you doing when the earthquake started?
I was listening to my iPod, so I didn’t hear the fire alarm.
You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off.
While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.
Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane.
While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.
A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?
B: I was snowboarding.

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption

In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.
Examples:
Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.

IMPORTANT
In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.
Examples:
Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner.
I started eating at 6 PM.
Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
I started earlier; and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinner.

USE 3 Parallel Actions

When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.
Examples:
I was studying while he was making dinner.
While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
Were you listening while he was talking?
I wasn’t paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.
What were you doing while you were waiting?
Thomas wasn’t working, and I wasn’t working either.
They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

USE 4 Atmosphere
In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past.
Example:
When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.

USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with “Always”

The Past Continuous with words such as “always” or “constantly” expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression “used to” but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words “always” or “constantly” between “be” and “verb+ing.”
Examples:
She was always coming to class late.
He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.
I didn’t like them because they were always complaining.
While vs. When

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word “when” such as “when she called” or “when it bit me.” Other clauses begin with “while” such as “while she was sleeping” and “while he was surfing.” When you talk about things in the past, “when” is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas “while” is usually followed by Past Continuous. “While” expresses the idea of “during that time.” Study the examples below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence.
Examples:
I was studying when she called.
While I was studying, she called.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past.
Examples:
Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct
Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You were just studying when she called.
Were you just studying when she called?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. Active
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. Passive
Present Perfect

FORM
[has/have + past participle]

Examples:
You have seen that movie many times.
Have you seen that movie many times?
You have not seen that movie many times.

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
Examples:
I have seen that movie twenty times.
I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?
Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?
The concept of “unspecified time” can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, “I have the experience of…” You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
Examples:
I have been to France.
This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
Examples:
You have grown since the last time I saw you.
The government has become more interested in arts education.
Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
Examples:
Man has walked on the Moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.

TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
Examples:
James has not finished his homework yet.
Susan hasn’t mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn’t stopped.

TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.
Examples:
The army has attacked that city five times.
I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
We have had many major problems while working on this project.
She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

Time Expressions with Present Perfect
When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.

Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.

Examples:
Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
They have had three tests in the last week.
She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
My car has broken down three times this week.

NOTICE
“Last year” and “in the last year” are very different in meaning. “Last year” means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. “In the last year” means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.
Examples:
I went to Mexico last year.
I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.

USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. “For five minutes,” “for two weeks,” and “since Tuesday” are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.
Examples:
I have had a cold for two weeks.
She has been in England for six months.
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.

Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words “live,” “work,” “teach,” and “study” are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You have only seen that movie one time.
Have you only seen that movie one time?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
Many tourists have visited that castle. Active
That castle has been visited by many tourists. Passive

Present Perfect Continuous / Progressive

FORM
[has/have + been + present participle]

Examples:
You have been waiting here for two hours.
Have you been waiting here for two hours?
You have not been waiting here for two hours.

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now
We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. “For five minutes,” “for two weeks,” and “since Tuesday” are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.
Examples:
They have been talking for the last hour.
She has been working at that company for three years.
What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
James has been teaching at the university since June.
We have been waiting here for over two hours!
Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?
You have been waiting here for two hours.

USE 2 Recently, Lately
You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as “for two weeks.” Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of “lately.” We often use the words “lately” or “recently” to emphasize this meaning.
Examples:
Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
She has been watching too much television lately.
Have you been exercising lately?
Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
Lisa has not been practicing her English.
What have you been doing?

IMPORTANT
Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of “lately” or “recently.” If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as “Have you been feeling alright?”, it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as “Have you been smoking?” can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.
Examples:
Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct
Sam has had his car for two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You have only been waiting here for one hour.
Have you only been waiting here for one hour?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
Recently, John has been doing the work. Active
Recently, the work has been being done by John. Passive

NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is less commonly used in its passive form.

Past Perfect

FORM
[had + past participle]

Examples:
You had studied English before you moved to New York.
Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
Examples:
I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.
Examples:
We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.
Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words “live,” “work,” “teach,” and “study” are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.
Example:
She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

MOREOVER
If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when “before” or “after” is used in the sentence. The words “before” and “after” actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.
Examples:
She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER

If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.
Examples:
She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license. Active
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license. Passive

Past Perfect Continuous / Progressive

FORM
[had been + present participle]

Examples:
You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?
You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past
We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. “For five minutes” and “for two weeks” are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.
Examples:
You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?
B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past
Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.
Examples:
Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.

Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous
If you do not include a duration such as “for five minutes,” “for two weeks” or “since Friday,” many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below to understand the difference.
Examples:
He was tired because he was exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was exercising at that exact moment.
He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.

This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a period of time. It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had just finished.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.
Examples:
The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct
The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived.
Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. Active
The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris. Passive

NOTE: Passive forms of the Past Perfect Continuous are not common.

Directions: Put the two activities together in one sentence by using the past perfect progressive. Make sure you use the time information. You may add words, such as because or after. There may be more than one answer. The first one has been done for you.

1. First: It snowed all morning.
Second: The kids went outside to make a snowman.
Answer: Before the kids went outside, it had been snowing all morning.
2. First: She loved him for a year.
Second: They had their first date.
Answer: She had loved him for a year before they had their first date. (Love is a stative verb.)
3. First: I studied French for 2 years.
Second: I visited France.
Answer: I finally visited France. I had been studying French for 2 years.
4. First: Trudy drove for 12 straight hours.
Second: She had an accident.
Answer: Trudy had an accident because she had been driving for 12 straight hours.
5. First: The doctor was trained for 4 years.
Second: He opened his own office.
Answer: The doctor had been training for 4 years before he opened his own office.
6. First: I believed you.
Second: Sam told me the truth.
Answer: I had believed you until Sam told me the truth. (Believe is a stative verb.)
7. First: Diane watched TV all afternoon.
Second: Her eyes were itchy.
Answer: Diane’s eyes were itchy. She had been watching TV all afternoon.
8. First: Columbus sailed for more than 2 months.
Second: He and his 90 sailors saw North America.
Answer: Columbus had been sailing for more than 2 months before he and his 90 sailors saw North America.
9. First: It rained a long time.
Second: Robin’s clothes were wet.
Answer: Robin’s clothes were wet. It had been raining a long time.
10. First: Raw meat was on the table for a week.
Second: The house stunk.
Answer: The house stunk because raw meat had been on the table for a week.

Simple Future

Simple Future has two different forms in English: “will” and “be going to.” Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both “will” and “be going to” refer to a specific time in the future.

FORM Will
[will + verb]

Examples:
You will help him later.
Will you help him later?
You will not help him later.

FORM Be Going To
[am/is/are + going to + verb]

Examples:
You are going to meet Jane tonight.
Are you going to meet Jane tonight?
You are not going to meet Jane tonight.

USE 1 “Will” to Express a Voluntary Action
“Will” often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use “will” to respond to someone else’s complaint or request for help. We also use “will” when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use “will not” or “won’t” when we refuse to voluntarily do something.
Examples:
I will send you the information when I get it.
I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.
Will you help me move this heavy table?
Will you make dinner?
I will not do your homework for you.
I won’t do all the housework myself!
A: I’m really hungry.
B: I’ll make some sandwiches.
A: I’m so tired. I’m about to fall asleep.
B: I’ll get you some coffee.
A: The phone is ringing.
B: I’ll get it.

USE 2 “Will” to Express a Promise
“Will” is usually used in promises.
Examples:
I will call you when I arrive.
If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.
I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
Don’t worry, I’ll be careful.
I won’t tell anyone your secret.

USE 3 “Be going to” to Express a Plan
“Be going to” expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.
Examples:
He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
I’m going to be an actor when I grow up.
Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.
Who are you going to invite to the party?
A: Who is going to make John’s birthday cake?
B: Sue is going to make John’s birthday cake.
USE 4 “Will” or “Be Going to” to Express a Prediction
Both “will” and “be going to” can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In “prediction” sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.
Examples:
The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.
John Smith will be the next President.
John Smith is going to be the next President.
The movie “Zenith” will win several Academy Awards.
The movie “Zenith” is going to win several Academy Awards.

IMPORTANT
In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence’s meaning.

No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used.
Examples:
When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct
When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You will never help him.
Will you ever help him?
You are never going to meet Jane.
Are you ever going to meet Jane?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
John will finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. Active
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. Passive

Future Continuous

Future Continuous has two different forms: “will be doing ” and “be going to be doing.” Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Continuous with “Will”
[will be + present participle]
Examples:
You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

FORM Future Continuous with “Be Going To “
[am/is/are + going to be + present participle]
Examples:
You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
You are not going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

REMEMBER: It is possible to use either “will” or “be going to” to create the Future Continuous with little difference in meaning.
Complete List of Future Continuous Forms

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future

Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.
Examples:
I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.
I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.
I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.
He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.

Notice in the examples above that the interruptions (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future

In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.
Examples:
Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
I will be in the process of eating dinner.
At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.
We will be in the process of driving through the desert.

REMEMBER
In the Simple Future, a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin or end. In the Future Continuous, a specific time interrupts the action.
Examples:
Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to eat dinner.
I am going to start eating at 6 PM.
Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
I am going to start earlier and I will be in the process of eating dinner at 6 PM.

USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future

When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.
Examples:
I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.
Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.
While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television.
Notice “is reading” because of the time clause containing “while.” (See Explanation Below)

USE 4 Atmosphere in the Future
In English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in the future.
Example:
When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used.
Examples:
While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct
While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Future.
Examples:
Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct
Jane will be at my house when you arrive. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You will still be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
Will you still be waiting for her when her plane arrives?
You are still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
Are you still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes. Active
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John. Passive
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes. Active
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John. Passive

NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Continuous are not common.

Future Perfect

Future Perfect has two different forms: “will have done” and “be going to have done.” Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect with “Will”
[will have + past participle]

Examples:
You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

FORM Future Perfect with “Be Going To”
[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]

Examples:
You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

NOTE: It is possible to use either “will” or “be going to” to create the Future Perfect with little or no difference in meaning.
Complete List of Future Perfect Forms

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future

The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.
Examples:
By next November, I will have received my promotion.
By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o’clock.
Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?
Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.
By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.
How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?

Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.

Examples:
I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.

Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words “live,” “work,” “teach,” and “study” are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, Present Perfect is used.
Examples:
I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct
I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You will only have learned a few words.
Will you only have learned a few words?
You are only going to have learned a few words.
Are you only going to have learned a few words?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active
The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passive

Future Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: “will have been doing ” and “be going to have been doing.” Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with “Will”
[will have been + present participle]

Examples:
You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with “Be Going To”
[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]

Examples:
You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

NOTE: It is possible to use either “will” or “be going to” to create the Future Perfect Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.
Complete List of Future Perfect Continuous Forms

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future

We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. “For five minutes,” “for two weeks,” and “since Friday” are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future.
Examples:
They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.
How long will you have been studying when you graduate?
We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage.
A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year?
B: No, I will not have been living here that long.

Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future

Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.
Examples:
Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.
Claudia’s English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.

Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous
If you do not include a duration such as “for five minutes,” “for two weeks” or “since Friday,” many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference.

Examples:
He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future.
He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.

This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used.
Examples:
You won’t get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not Correct
You won’t get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Future Perfect .
Examples:
Ned will have been having his driver’s license for over two years. Not Correct
Ned will have had his driver’s license for over two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?
You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive

NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Perfect Continuous are not common.

Used To

FORM
[used to + VERB]

Example:
I used to go to the beach every day.

It is better not to use “used to” in questions or negative forms; however, this is sometimes done in informal spoken English. It is better to ask questions and create negative sentences using Simple Past.

USE 1 Habit in the Past

“Used to” expresses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the past. It indicates that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now.
Examples:
Jerry used to study English.
Sam and Mary used to go to Mexico in the summer.
I used to start work at 9 o’clock.
Christine used to eat meat, but now she is a vegetarian.

USE 2 Past Facts and Generalizations

“Used to” can also be used to talk about past facts or generalizations which are no longer true.
Examples:
I used to live in Paris.
Sarah used to be fat, but now she is thin.
George used to be the best student in class, but now Lena is the best.
Oranges used to cost very little in Florida, but now they are quite expensive.

“Used to” vs. Simple Past
Both Simple Past and “Used to” can be used to describe past habits, past facts and past generalizations; however, “used to” is preferred when emphasizing these forms of past repetition in positive sentences. On the other hand, when asking questions or making negative sentences, Simple Past is preferred.
Examples:
You used to play the piano.
Did you play the piano when you were young?
You did not play the piano when you were young.

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
Jerry used to pay the bills. Active
The bills used to be paid by Jerry. Passive

Would Always

FORM
[would always + VERB]

Examples:
You would always take your surfboard with you when you went to the beach.
Would you always take your surfboard with you when you went to the beach?
You would not always take your surfboard with you when you went to the beach.

USE 1 Habit in the Past

Like “used to” and Simple Past, “would always” expresses the idea that something was an old habit which stopped in the past. It says that an action was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now. Unlike “used to” and Simple Past, “would always” suggests that someone willingly acted that way and sometimes expresses annoyance or amusement at the habit. It also often suggests the habit was extreme. To express the opposite idea, we can say “would never” to indicate that someone never did something in the past, but now they do.

Examples:
She would always send me strange birthday gifts.
Sam and Mary would always choose the most exotic vacation destinations.
Sally would not always arrive early to class. She came late once or twice.
Ned would always show up at our house without calling first.
Mindy would not always walk to school. Sometimes, she took the bus.
Christine would always come late to the meetings.
Jeff would never pay for drinks when we went out together with our friends.
Refusing to do something or normally not doing something is also a form of habit.

REMEMBER “Would Always” is Different
“Would always” is not exactly the same as “used to” or the Simple Past. “Would always” cannot be used to talk about past facts or generalizations. It can only be used for repeated actions.
Examples:
Sarah was shy, but now she is very outgoing. Correct
Sarah used to be shy, but now she is very outgoing. Correct
Sarah would always be shy, but now she is very outgoing. Not Correct
Forms Related to “Would Always”

In addition to “would always,” English speakers often use “would constantly,” “would often,” “would forever” or simply “would.” Although the last form “would” is correct, it is not suggested because it can easily be confused with other verb forms such as the Conditional or Future in the Past. Similarly, speakers can use “would rarely,” “would occasionally” and “would seldom” to express the idea that an action was not often repeated.

Examples:
Jerry would come to the parties every weekend.
Jerry would constantly bring his girlfriend to the parties.
Jerry would often bring his best friend to the parties.
Jerry would occasionally bring his older brother to the parties.
Jerry would seldom bring his sister to the parties.
Jerry would never bring his younger brother to the parties.
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
My mother would always make the pies. Active
The pies would always be made by my mother. Passive

Future in the Past

Like Simple Future, Future in the Past has two different forms in English: “would” and “was going to.” Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two different meanings.

FORM Would
[would + VERB]

Examples:
I knew you would help him.
I knew you would not help him.

FORM Was/Were Going To
[was/were + going to + VERB]

Examples:
I knew you were going to go to the party.
I knew you were not going to go to the party.

USE 1 Future in Past

Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not. Future in the Past follows the same basic rules as the Simple Future. “Would” is used to volunteer or promise, and “was going to” is used to plan. Moreover, both forms can be used to make predictions about the future.
Examples:
I told you he was going to come to the party. plan
I knew Julie would make dinner. voluntary action
Jane said Sam was going to bring his sister with him, but he came alone. plan
I had a feeling that the vacation was going to be a disaster. prediction
He promised he would send a postcard from Egypt. promise

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, Future in the Past cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of using Future in the Past, you must use Simple Past.
Examples:
I already told Mark that when he would arrive, we would go out for dinner. Not Correct
I already told Mark that when he arrived, we would go out for dinner. Correct

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner. Active
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally. Passive

Sumber : http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage

Vowels

February 5, 2010 at 9:47 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! [ɑː] or oh! [oʊ], pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! [ʃː], where there is a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. A vowel is also understood to be syllabic: an equivalent open but non-syllabic sound is called a semivowel.

English has twelve vowel sounds. In the table above they are divided into seven short and five long vowels. An alternative way of organizing them is according to where (in the mouth) they are produced. This method allows us to describe them as front, central and back. We can qualify them further by how high the tongue and lower jaw are when we make these vowel sounds, and by whether our lips are rounded or spread, and finally by whether they are short or long. This scheme shows the following arrangement:

Front vowels
/i:/ – cream, seen (long high front spread vowel)
/ɪ/ – bit, silly (short high front spread vowel)
/ɛ/ – bet, head (short mid front spread vowel); this may also be shown by the symbol /e/
/æ/ – cat, dad (short low front spread vowel); this may also be shown by /a/

Central vowels
/ɜ:/- burn, firm (long mid central spread vowel); this may also be shown by the symbol /ə:/.
/ə/ – about, clever (short mid central spread vowel); this is sometimes known as schwa, or the neutral vowel sound – it never occurs in a stressed position.
/ʌ/ – cut, nut (short low front spread vowel); this vowel is quite uncommon among speakers in the Midlands and further north in Britain.

Back vowels
/u:/ – boob, glue (long high back rounded vowel)
/ʊ/ – put, soot (short high back rounded vowel); also shown by /u/
/ɔ:/ – corn, faun (long mid back rounded vowel) also shown by /o:/
/ɒ/- dog, rotten (short low back rounded vowel) also shown by /o/
/ɑ:/ – hard, far (long low back spread vowel)

We can also arrange the vowels in a table or even depict them against a cross-section of the human mouth. Here is an example of a simple table:

Front Central Back
High ɪ i: ʊ u:
Mid ɛ ə ɜ: ɔ:
Low æ ʌ ɒ ɑ:

/i:/ high close front unrounded /i:t/ eat
/i/ high open front unrounded /in/ in
/ei/ mid close front unrounded /dei / day
/e/ mid open front unrounded /end/ end
/æ/ low close front unrounded /æd/ add
/ə/ mid close central unrounded /əbaut/ about
/ɜ/ mid close central unrounded /bɜrd/ bird
/ʌ/ mid open central unrounded /ʌp/ up
/a/ low open central unrounded /art/ art
/u:/ high close back rounded /zu:/ zoo
/u/ high open back rounded /wud/ wood
/əu/ mid close back rounded /əun/ own
/ɒ/ mid open back rounded /bɒnd/ bond
/ɔ/ low close back rounded /lɔ/ law

The Organs of Speech

February 5, 2010 at 8:00 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

The Organs of Speech

1-nasal cavity
2-lips
3-teeth
4-aveolar ridge
5-hard palate
6-velum (soft palate)
7-uvula
8-apex (tip) of tongue
9-blade (front) of tongue
10-dorsum (back) of tongue
11-oral cavity
12-pharynx
13-epiglottis
14-larynx
15-vocal cords
16-trachea
17-esophagus

Consonants

February 5, 2010 at 3:50 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Manner of articulation
In linguistics (articulatory phonetics), manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners, and therefore several homorganic consonants.

Individual manners
Plosive, or oral stop, where there is complete occlusion (blockage) of both the oral and nasal cavities of the vocal tract, and therefore no air flow. Examples include English /p t k/ (voiceless) and /b d g/ (voiced). If the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion; if it is voiceless, a plosive is completely silent. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel, and well as the release burst and its effect on the following vowel. The shape and position of the tongue (the place of articulation) determine the resonant cavity that gives different plosives their characteristic sounds. All languages have plosives.
Nasal stop, usually shortened to nasal, where there is complete occlusion of the oral cavity, and the air passes instead through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasal stops their characteristic sounds. Examples include English /m, n/. Nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island.
Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication (turbulent and noisy airflow) at the place of articulation. Examples include English /f, s/ (voiceless), /v, z/ (voiced), etc. Most languages have fricatives, though many have only an /s/. However, the Indigenous Australian languages are almost completely devoid of fricatives of any kind.
Sibilants are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the tongue toward the teeth, creating a high-pitched and very distinctive sound. These are by far the most common fricatives. Fricatives at coronal (front of tongue) places of articulation are usually, though not always, sibilants. English sibilants include /s/ and /z/.
Lateral fricatives are a rare type of fricative, where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of the tongue. The “ll” of Welsh and the “hl” of Zulu are lateral fricatives.
Affricate, which begins like a plosive, but this releases into a fricative rather than having a separate release of its own. The English letters “ch” and “j” represent affricates. Affricates are quite common around the world, though less common than fricatives.
Flap, often called a tap, is a momentary closure of the oral cavity. The “tt” of “utter” and the “dd” of “udder” are pronounced as a flap in North American English. Many linguists distinguish taps from flaps, but there is no consensus on what the difference might be. No language relies on such a difference. There are also lateral flaps.
Trill, in which the articulator (usually the tip of the tongue) is held in place, and the airstream causes it to vibrate. The double “r” of Spanish “perro” is a trill. Trills and flaps, where there are one or more brief occlusions, constitute a class of consonant called rhotics.
Approximant, where there is very little obstruction. Examples include English /w/ and /r/. In some languages, such as Spanish, there are sounds which seem to fall between fricative and approximant.
One use of the word semivowel, sometimes called a glide, is a type of approximant, pronounced like a vowel but with the tongue closer to the roof of the mouth, so that there is slight turbulence. In English, /w/ is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /u/, and /j/ (spelled “y”) is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /i/ in this usage. Other descriptions use semivowel for vowel-like sounds that are not syllabic, but do not have the increased stricture of approximants. These are found as elements in diphthongs. The word may also be used to cover both concepts.
Lateral approximants, usually shortened to lateral, are a type of approximant pronounced with the side of the tongue. English /l/ is a lateral. Together with the rhotics, which have similar behavior in many languages, these form a class of consonant called liquids.

Place of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth). Along with the manner of articulation and phonation, this gives the consonant its distinctive sound.

A place of articulation is defined as both the active and passive articulators. For instance, the active lower lip may contact either a passive upper lip (bilabial, like [m]) or the upper teeth (labiodental, like [f]). The hard palate may be contacted by either the front or the back of the tongue. If the front of the tongue is used, the place is called retroflex; if back of the tongue (“dorsum”) is used, the place is called “dorsal-palatal”, or more commonly, just palatal.

There are five basic active articulators: the lip (“labial consonants”), the flexible front of the tongue (“coronal consonants”), the middle/back of the tongue (“dorsal consonants”), the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis (“radical consonants”), and the larynx (“laryngeal consonants”). These articulators can act independently of each other, and two or more may work together in what is called coarticulation (see below).

The passive articulation, on the other hand, is a continuum without many clear-cut boundaries. The places linguolabial and interdental, interdental and dental, dental and alveolar, alveolar and palatal, palatal and velar, velar and uvular merge into one another, and a consonant may be pronounced somewhere between the named places.

In addition, when the front of the tongue is used, it may be the upper surface or blade of the tongue that makes contact (“laminal consonants”), the tip of the tongue (“apical consonants”), or the under surface (“sub-apical consonants”). These articulations also merge into one another without clear boundaries.

Consonants that have the same place of articulation, such as the alveolar sounds — n, t, d, s, z, l — in English, are said to be homorganic.

A homorganic nasal rule is a case where the point of articulation of the initial sound is assimilated by the last sound in a prefix. An example of this rule is found in language Yoruba, where ba, “hide”, becomes mba, “is hiding”, while sun, “sleep”, becomes nsun, “is sleeping”.

List of places where the obstruction may occur
Bilabial: between the lips
Labiodental: between the lower lip and the upper teeth
Dentolabial: between the upper lip and the lower teeth
Linguolabial: between the front of the tongue and the upper lip
Dental: between the front of the tongue and the top teeth
Alveolar: between the front of the tongue and the ridge behind the gums (the alveolus)
Postalveolar: between the front of the tongue and the space behind the alveolar ridge
Retroflex: in “true” retroflexes, the tongue curls back so the underside touches the palate
Palatal: between the middle of the tongue and the hard palate
Velar: between the back of the tongue and the soft palate (the velum)
Uvular: between the back of the tongue and the uvula (which hangs down in the back of the mouth)

(All of the above may be nasalized, and most may be lateralized.)
Pharyngeal: between the root of the tongue and the back of the throat (the pharynx)
Epiglotto-pharyngeal: between the epiglottis and the back of the throat
Epiglottal: between the aryepiglottic folds and the epiglottis (see larynx)
Glottal: at the glottis (see larynx)

Nasals and laterals
In nasals, the velum is lowered to allow air to pass through the nose (technically a place, but generally considered as a manner of articulation[citation needed])
In laterals, the air is released past the tongue sides and teeth rather than over the tip of the tongue. English has only one lateral, /l/, but many languages have more than one, e.g. Spanish written “l” vs. “ll”; Hindi with dental, palatal, and retroflex laterals; and numerous Native American languages with not only lateral approximants, but also lateral fricatives and affricates. Some Northeast Caucasian languages have five, six, or even seven lateral consonants.

VPM
VOICE-PLACE-MANNER of articulation

In the International Phonetic Alphabet consonant (pulmonic) chart you will see that eleven places of articulation are displayed: bilabial (consonants made with both lips in contact); labiodental (consonants made with contact between the lower lip and upper teeth); and so on.

These places of articulation are cross referenced with the way, or manner in which the sounds are produced. There are eight manners of articulation: plosive (or stop) consonants in which the air-flow is stopped abruptly by the articulators; nasals, in which the air flows down the nose; fricatives in which friction is created by the air passing through lightly touching articulators; and so on.

The chart also indicates which consonants are voiced (like b, d, g, v, z, etc.) and which are voiceless (like p, t, k, f, s, etc.). Where you see pairs of sounds (or voiced and voiceless cognates) the voiceless sound is on the left, and the voiced one on the right. When a voiced sound is produced the vocal cords in the larynx (voice box) vibrate. When a voiceless sound is produced the vocal cords do not vibrate.

All the consonants of English can be classified in terms of “VPM” (voice-place-manner). For instance, /f/ is a voiceless labiodental fricative, and /b/ is a voiced bilabial plosive (stop).

Some authorities claim one or two fewer consonants than I have shown above, regarding those with double symbols (/tʃ/ and /dʒ/) as “diphthong consonants” in Potter’s phrase. The list omits one sound that is not strictly a consonant but works like one. The full IPA list of phonetic symbols includes some for non-pulmonic consonants (not made with air coming from the lungs), click and glottal sounds. In some varieties of English, especially in the south of Britain (but the sound has migrated north) we find the glottal plosive or glottal stop, shown by the symbol /ʔ/ (essentially a question mark without the dot at the tail). This sound occurs in place of /t/ for some speakers – so /botəl/ or /botl/ (bottle) become /boʔəl/ or /boʔl/.

We form consonants by controlling or impeding the egressive (outward) flow of air. We do this with the articulators – from the glottis, past the velum, the hard palate and alveolar ridge and the tongue, to the teeth and lips. The sound results from three things:
voicing – causing the vocal cords to vibrate
where the articulation happens
how the articulation happens – how the airflow is controlled

Voicing

All vowels must be voiced – they are caused by vibration in the vocal cords. But consonants may be voiced or not. Some of the consonant sounds of English come in pairs that differ in being voiced or not – in which case they are described as voiceless or unvoiced. So /b/ is voiced and /p/ is the unvoiced consonant in one pair, while voiced /g/ and voiceless /k/ form another pair.

We can explain the consonant sounds by the place where the articulation principally occurs or by the kinds of articulation that occurs there. The first scheme gives us this arrangement:

Articulation described by region
Glottal articulation – articulation by the glottis. We use this for one consonant in English. This is /h/ in initial position in house or hope.
Velar articulation – we do this with the back of the tongue against the velum. We use it for initial hard /g/ (as in golf) and for final /ŋ/ (as in gong).
Palatal articulation – we do this with the front of the tongue on the hard palate. We use it for /dʒ/ (as in jam) and for /ʃ/ (as in sheep or sugar).
Alveolar articulation – we do this with the tongue blade on the alveolar ridge. We use it for /t/ (as in teeth), /d/ (as in dodo) /z/ (as in zebra) /n/ (as in no) and /l/ (as in light).
Dental articulation – we do this with the tip of the tongue on the back of the upper front teeth. We use it for /θ/ (as in think) and /ð/ (as in that). This is one form of articulation that we can observe and feel ourselves doing.
Labio-dental articulation – we do this with the lower lip and upper front teeth. We use it for /v/ (as in vampire).
Labial articulation – we do this with the lips for /b/ (as in boat) and /m/ (as in most). Where we use two lips (as in English) this is bilabial articulation.

Articulation described by manner
This scheme gives us a different arrangement into stop(or plosive) consonants, affricates, fricatives, nasal consonants, laterals and approximants.
Stop consonants (so-called because the airflow is stopped) or plosive consonants (because it is subsequently released, causing an outrush of air and a burst of sound) are:
Bilabial voiced /b/ (as in boat) and voiceless /p/ (as in post)
Alveolar voiced /d/ (as in dad) and voiceless /t/ (as in tap)
Velar voiced /g/ (as in golf) and voiceless /k/ (as in cow)
Affricates are a kind of stop consonant, where the expelled air causes friction rather than plosion. They are palatal /tʃ/ (as in cheat) and palatal /dʒ/ (as in jam)
Fricatives come from restricting, but not completely stopping, the airflow. The air passes through a narrow space and the sound arises from the friction this produces. They come in voiced and unvoiced pairs:
Labio-dental voiced /v/ (as in vole) and unvoiced /f/ (as in foal)
Dental voiced /ð/ (as in those) and unvoiced /θ/ (as in thick)
Alveolar voiced /z/ (as in zest) and unvoiced /s/ (as in sent)
Palatal voiced /ʒ/ (as in the middle of leisure) and unvoiced /ʃ/ (as at the end of trash)
Nasal consonants involve closing the articulators but lowering the uvula, which normally closes off the route to the nose, through which the air escapes. There are three nasal consonants in English:
Bilabial /m/ (as in mine)
Alveolar /n/ (as in nine)
Velar /ŋ/ (as at the end of gong)
Lateral consonants allow the air to escape at the sides of the tongue. In English there is only one such sound, which is alveolar /l/ (as at the start of lamp)
Approximants do not impede the flow of air. They are all voiced but are counted as consonants chiefly because of how they function in syllables. They are:
Bilabial /w/ (as in water)
Alveolar /r/ (as in road)
Palatal /j/ (as in yet)

/p/ voiceless bilabial stop /sʌpər/ supper
/b/ voiced bilabial stop /bai/ by /klʌb/ club
/t/ voiceless alveolar stop /betər/ better
/d/ voiced alveolar stop /ædiŋ/ adding
/k/ voiceless velar stop /lukiŋ/ looking
/g/ voiced velar stop /gein/ gain
/tʃ/ voiceless alveo-palatal affricate /tʃu:z/ choose
/dჳ/ voiced alveo-palatal affricate /dჳʌdჳ/ judge
/f/ voiceless labio-dental fricative /flai/ fly
/v/ voiced labio-dental fricative /lʌv/ love
/θ/ voiceless inter-dental fricative /θiŋ/ thing
/ð/ voiced inter-dental fricative /ðen/ then
/s/ voiceless alveolar fricative /lisən/ listen
/z/ voiced alveolar fricative /bizi:/ busy
// voiceless alveo-palatal fricative /fi/ fish
/ჳ/ voiced alveo-palatal fricative /meჳər/ measure
/m/ voiced bilabial nasal /neim/ name
/n/ voiced alveolar nasal /nʌn/ none
/ŋ/ voiced velar nasal /siŋiŋ/ singing
/l/ voiced alveolar lateral /bɔl/ ball
/r/ voiced retroflex vibrant /mæri:/ marry
/h/ voiceless glottal fricative /hænd/ hand
/w/ voiced bilabial semi-vowel /louər/ lower
/j/ voiced palatal semi-vowel /jes/ yes

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