Materi Kuliah Intro to Linguistics

June 22, 2010 at 4:30 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Koesnandar/0923385P1, STKIP PGRI Sidoarjo

Linguistics:
I. Phonology
a. Phonetics
b. Phonemics
II. Morphology
a. Morphs/Morpheme –> Morphemics
b. Words (Formation & Construction)
III. Syntax –> Sentence
IV. Semantics –> meaning(s)
V. Applied Linguistics
a. Error Analysis
b. Discourse
c. Constrastive
d. Sociolinguistics

Linguistics is a science which studies about language.
Phonology (sound) is a branch of linguistics which studies about sound.
Phonetics is a branch of phonology which studies about :
– how to produce sound
– how to pronounce sound
Phonemics is a branch of phonology which studies about how to use the sounds.
Morphology is a branch of linguistics which studies Morphs/Morphemes and words.
Syntax is a branch of linguistics which studies about sentence.
Semantics is a branch of linguistics which studies about meaning in a language.

Linguistics
1. Definition
a. Linguistics is a science which studies about language
b. language, linguist, native speaker
c. branch of linguistics
d. elements of language
e. characteristics of language
f. language is arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which people in a society can :
– communicate
– co-operate and
– interact (one to each others)
2. Grammar
a. traditional grammar
b. structural grammar of modern grammar
c. transformational grammar
3. Three diagram
4. Ambiguity (ambigius sentence)
5. Syntactic structures
6. Dialects and vernacular
7. Some terms
a. synchronic linguistics and diachronic linguistics
b. immediate constituentis
c. EFL : TEFL
d. ESL : TESL
e. FLA : SLA

Speech sounds are sounds which are produced by the human vocal organs of speech.

Elements of language:
1. sounds –> phonology
2. grammar –> rules patterns –> morphology & syntax
3. meaning –> vocab –> semantics

Characteristics of language:
1. sounds (vocab)
Language is sounds basically
The IL-ilterate people : can speak, can’t write
2. arbitrary
The native speaker of the language agree to accept them (terms/symbols/meaning)
3. conventional/agreement
There is no reason, but agreement.
4. systematic
with limited (finite) rule can produce unlimited (infinite) number of sentences
ex. S + V + O + Adv
I saw him
He has bought a book
5. a system of systems
rule –> sounds
rule –> morphemes/words
rule –> phrases
rule –> clauses
rule –> sentences
rule –> paragraphs
rule –> …. (story)
ex. My twin beautiful sisters Elly and Emy work at the same office in the center of the city.
My beautiful and younger sister studies English in the USA.
6. creative/productive
– can express, everything
– can be used to express many ideas
– can say about future
– can tell something that doesn’t exist yet
– can produce unlimited sentences
7. a social phenomenon
8. meaningful
lexical, structural, cultural (overall)
9. habit/recursion
– daily use
– daily spoken
– trained
– drilled
10. unique
11 social behaviour (social phenomenom)
language is used by society
12. relative (equally complex)
There are no languages which are better than others.
Each language is good for its own society (native speakers)

GRAMMAR
1. Traditional Grammar / school grammar
2. Structural Grammar / modern grammar
3. Transformational Grammar
4. Transformational Generative Grammar

Traditional Grammar : (base of Latin)
It has weakness:
1. not consistent
e.g. the definition of noun (part of speech) is the name of a person, place, thing, animal.
Adjective is a word that modifies a noun (function)
– The pretty girl (adjective)
– I met the pretty walking alone at night (noun)

2. the sentence analysis does not given one any better idea of sentence structure
– subject is the doer of an action
– object is the receiver of an action
ex. Devi sweeps the floor (the doer)
The floor is swept by Devi (the receiver)

3. normative / prescriptive (not descriptive)
– how language must be used
not how language is actually used
shall –> 1st person
will –> 2nd, 3rd person

Structural Grammar
Structural: is a term in linguistics referring to the analysis of language.
Linguistics features can be described in terms of structural and system (rules).
Structure :
– Surface structure –> Performance
– Deep structure –> Competence

Transformational Grammar
1. Surface structure
e.g. Mother went to Surabaya
Mother bought pizza
2. Deep structure
e.g. Pizza was bought by mother

Transformational Generative Grammar
– active passive
– relative pronouns
– clause(s)

I give my mother flowers
My mother is given flowers by me
Flowers are given to my mother by me

AMBIGUOUS SENTENCE
Is a sentence which have more than one meaning.

Ship sails today :
– The ship (N/S) sails (V) today. (statement)
– Ship (V) the sails (N) today. (order)

John likes kissing girls :
– John likes / kissing girls (the doer of kissing is the girls)
– John likes kissing / girls (the doer of kissing is John)

Love blossoms in spring :
– Love (V) the blossoms (N) in spring
– The love (N) blossoms (V) in spring

STRUCTURE OF MODIFICATION
has two complements : Head and Modifier
Bus station
(N) (N)
M –> H
M=Modifier
H=Head

Beautiful girl
(Adj) (N)
M —-> H

Walked Quickly
(V) (Adv)
H <— M

STRUCTURE OF PREDICATION
has two complements : Subject and Predicate
I went
(S) (V)
M –> H

STRUCTURE OF COMPLEMENTATION
has two complements : P.V Aux and O/ complement

buy flowers
(V)

STRUCTURE OF COORDINATION
the condition of the element:
balanced –> N-N, V-V, Adj-Adj, Adv-Adv
conjuction –> but, and, or, with

White or black
(N) (N)

Small but strong
(Adj) (Adj)

DIALECT
Is the variety of language spokenby numbers of single homogeneous speech community.
A language is a collection of dialects spoken by the members of different speech communities.

Vernacular is a language, (specific) language spoken by a ethnic group.

Kinds of Dialects:
1. Regional Dialect is the dialect spoken in speech communities occupying different parts of general territory of a language.
2. Class (social) Dialect is the dialect spoken by different social groups within the some region.
3. Prestige Dialect is the dialect admired and emulated by the speakers of others dialect(s).
4. Standart Dialect is the dialect generally admitted by the majority of speakers to be superior to all the other dialect in its language.

Synchronic linguistics:
a term used in other fields such as anthropology, means “dealing with the state of affairs at a given points of time”.

Diachronic linguistics:
is used in other sciences, mean “dealing with changes that occur in time”.

TREE DIAGRAM

T. Rules : Transformational Rules
PS. Rules : Phrase Structure Rules
S (Sentence) –> NP + VP
NP –> Det(ermine) + N
VP –> Verb + NP
Aux + Verb
Aux + Adjective
PP –> Preposition Phrase
Adj. P –> Adjective Phrase
Adv. P –> Determiner + NP (Noun Phrase)
Adv. P –> Adv. time
place
manner

The girl will write a letter.
| | | | | |
Det N Aux Main-V Det N
|____| |______| |____|
| | |
| V NP
| |___________|
| |
NP VP
|________________|
|
S

I met a beautiful girl in the campus
| | | | | | | |
| | | Adj N | D N
| | | |_________| | |_________|
| | | | | |
| | D NP Prepo NP
| | |____________| |__________|
| | | |
| | NP PP
| | |________________________|
| | |
N V NP
| |______________________|
| |
NP VP
|________________|
|
S

The house which was old fell down
| | | |
| | The house was old | |
| | | | | | | |
| | D N be Adj | |
| | |______| |_____| | |
| | | | | |
D N NP3 VP | |
|________| |____________| | |
| | | |
NP2 S2 V Adv
|__________________| |_______|
| |
NP1 VP1
|______________________________|
|
S1

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