Tugas Phonology

March 17, 2010 at 12:12 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

When do two or more allophones belongs to one phoneme?
There are:
1. Phonetic similarity
– the different of prononciation does not change the meaning
– is a variation of pronouncing consonant
eg. In English, /h/ and /ŋ/ are in complementary distribution. /h/ only ever occurs at the beginning of a syllable (head /hed/, heart /hart/, enhance, perhaps) whilst /ŋ/ only ever occurs at the end of a syllable (sing /sing/, singer, finger /finggər).
2. Complementary distribution
– is a distribution of one sound which can be substituted by onather of the same kind whitout changing the meaning
eg. pocket /p’əkit/ with aspiration /pəkit/ no aspiration
3. Free variation
– the different of pronunciation does not change the meaning
– is a variation of pronouncing vowels
eg. house /hauz/ /houz/
was /wəz/ /wɔz/
again /əgein/ /egaen/

Why should an english teacher have the knowledge of phonetic?
– he must be able to produce sound well
– he must be able to pronounce sound well
– he must be able to make correction when the student error

What does the term below mean:
Defective phonemes:
– they don’t have complete position
eg. /h/ in though /ðou/, enough /inΛf/, hand /hænd/, behind /bi’haind/, behaviour /bi’heivyər/
/ŋ/ in singing /siŋiŋ/ , language /længgwij/, english, longer

Semi vowels:
– A sound in speech which has some qualities of a consonant and some qualities of a vowel
– A letter which represents a semivowel sound, such as w or y in English.
eg. cow /kəu/, nephew /nefju/, boy /bɔi/, key /ki:/, buying /baijiŋ/

Minimal pair:
Minimal pair are pairs of words that have one phonological that is different.
– have same environments
– show one different sound
– show different in meaning
eg. food /fud/ – foot /fut/
snack /snaek/ – snake /sneik/
back /baek/ – bag /baeg/

Glide:
When a consonant is rapidly transitioned to a following vowel.
The tongue starts in the position of [ə] and glides up to [u]
eg. [əu] in cow, equal /ikjuwəl/, fire /faijə/, pure /pjuwə/

Aspirated sound:
To pronounce (a vowel or word) with the initial release of breath associated with English h, as in hurry.
– is the adding /h/ sound
– after voiceless stop sounds /p,t,k/
– in the initial position of the word
– followed by vowel(s)
eg. people /phipl/
table /theibl/
capable /khəpəbl/

What are the differences between:
Dipthong and cluster
Dipthong:
– is a combination of two or more vowels, which are produced with the organs of speech making a change in position
eg. boy [bɔi], time [tæm], loud, hour, power, lady
Cluster:
– is a combination of two or more consonants
A. Initial Cluster
eg. prefer, school, square
B. Medial Cluster
eg. wanted, complete, itself
C. Final Cluster
eg. perhaps, camps, helps

Homograph and homophone
Homograph:
– same spelling
– different meaning
– different pronunciation
eg. leave – leaf, red – read (V2)

Homophone:
– same pronunciation
– different meaning
– different spelling
eg. new – knew, some – sum

Voiced and voiceless
Voiced; any sound produced with the vocal cords vibrating
eg. bay /bai/, club /klΛb/, name /neim/, then /ðen/
Voiceless; when the vocal cords do not vibrate
eg. pipe /paip/, supper /sΛpər/, cook /kuk/, listen /lisən/

Places or Points of Articulation (POA)
POA is “where” the consonant is produced.
eg. bilabial, labio-dental, dental, alveolar, palato-alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal

Manners of Articulation (MOA)
MOA is “how” the consonant is produced.
eg. plosive, affricate, nasal, lateral, rolled, flapped, fricative, semivowel

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