Tugas Phonology

March 17, 2010 at 12:12 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

When do two or more allophones belongs to one phoneme?
There are:
1. Phonetic similarity
– the different of prononciation does not change the meaning
– is a variation of pronouncing consonant
eg. In English, /h/ and /ŋ/ are in complementary distribution. /h/ only ever occurs at the beginning of a syllable (head /hed/, heart /hart/, enhance, perhaps) whilst /ŋ/ only ever occurs at the end of a syllable (sing /sing/, singer, finger /finggər).
2. Complementary distribution
– is a distribution of one sound which can be substituted by onather of the same kind whitout changing the meaning
eg. pocket /p’əkit/ with aspiration /pəkit/ no aspiration
3. Free variation
– the different of pronunciation does not change the meaning
– is a variation of pronouncing vowels
eg. house /hauz/ /houz/
was /wəz/ /wɔz/
again /əgein/ /egaen/

Why should an english teacher have the knowledge of phonetic?
– he must be able to produce sound well
– he must be able to pronounce sound well
– he must be able to make correction when the student error

What does the term below mean:
Defective phonemes:
– they don’t have complete position
eg. /h/ in though /ðou/, enough /inΛf/, hand /hænd/, behind /bi’haind/, behaviour /bi’heivyər/
/ŋ/ in singing /siŋiŋ/ , language /længgwij/, english, longer

Semi vowels:
– A sound in speech which has some qualities of a consonant and some qualities of a vowel
– A letter which represents a semivowel sound, such as w or y in English.
eg. cow /kəu/, nephew /nefju/, boy /bɔi/, key /ki:/, buying /baijiŋ/

Minimal pair:
Minimal pair are pairs of words that have one phonological that is different.
– have same environments
– show one different sound
– show different in meaning
eg. food /fud/ – foot /fut/
snack /snaek/ – snake /sneik/
back /baek/ – bag /baeg/

When a consonant is rapidly transitioned to a following vowel.
The tongue starts in the position of [ə] and glides up to [u]
eg. [əu] in cow, equal /ikjuwəl/, fire /faijə/, pure /pjuwə/

Aspirated sound:
To pronounce (a vowel or word) with the initial release of breath associated with English h, as in hurry.
– is the adding /h/ sound
– after voiceless stop sounds /p,t,k/
– in the initial position of the word
– followed by vowel(s)
eg. people /phipl/
table /theibl/
capable /khəpəbl/

What are the differences between:
Dipthong and cluster
– is a combination of two or more vowels, which are produced with the organs of speech making a change in position
eg. boy [bɔi], time [tæm], loud, hour, power, lady
– is a combination of two or more consonants
A. Initial Cluster
eg. prefer, school, square
B. Medial Cluster
eg. wanted, complete, itself
C. Final Cluster
eg. perhaps, camps, helps

Homograph and homophone
– same spelling
– different meaning
– different pronunciation
eg. leave – leaf, red – read (V2)

– same pronunciation
– different meaning
– different spelling
eg. new – knew, some – sum

Voiced and voiceless
Voiced; any sound produced with the vocal cords vibrating
eg. bay /bai/, club /klΛb/, name /neim/, then /ðen/
Voiceless; when the vocal cords do not vibrate
eg. pipe /paip/, supper /sΛpər/, cook /kuk/, listen /lisən/

Places or Points of Articulation (POA)
POA is “where” the consonant is produced.
eg. bilabial, labio-dental, dental, alveolar, palato-alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal

Manners of Articulation (MOA)
MOA is “how” the consonant is produced.
eg. plosive, affricate, nasal, lateral, rolled, flapped, fricative, semivowel


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