Tugas TEFL

June 2, 2010 at 3:41 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Koesnandar (0923385P1), STKIP PGRI Sidoarjo

The Principles of The Grammar-Translation Method

– A fundamental purpose ole learning a foreign language is to be able to read its literature. Literary language is superior to spoken language. Students’ study of the foreign culture is limited to its literature and fine arts.
– An important goal is for students to be able to translate each language into the other. If students can translate from one language into another, they are considered successful language learners.
– The ability to communicate in the target language is not a goal of foreign language instruction.
– The primary skills to be developed are reading and writing. Little attention is given to speaking and listening, and almost none to pronunciation.
– The teacher is the authority in the classroom. It is very important that students get the correct answer.
– It is possible to find native language equivalents for all target language words.
– Learning is facilitated through attention to similarities between the target language and the native language.
– It is important for students to learn about the form of the target language.
– Deductive application of an explicit grammar rule is a useful pedagogical technique.
– Language learning provides good mental exercise.
– Students shuold be conscious of the grammatical rules of the target language.
– Whenever possible, verb conjugations and other grammatical paradigms should be committed to memory.

Reviewing the principles
1. What are the goals of teachers who use the Grammar-Translation Method?
According to the teachers who use the The Grammar-Translation Method, a fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written in the target language. To do this, students need to learn about the grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language. In addition, it is believed that studying a foreign language provides students with good mental exercise with helps develop their mind.

2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
The roles are very traditional. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. The students do as he says so they can learn what he knows.

3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
Students are taught to translate from one language to another. Often what they translate are readings in the target language about some aspect of the culture of the foreign language community. Students study grammar deductively; that is, they are given the grammar rules and examples, are told to memorize them, and then are asked to apply the rules to other examples. They also learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations. They memorize native language equivalents for foreign language vocabulary words.

4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
Most of interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students. There is little student initiation and little student-student interaction.

5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
There are no priciples of the method which relate to this area.

6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?
Literary language is considered superior to spoken language and is therefore the language student study. Culture is viewed as consisting of literature and the fine arts.

7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized. Reading and writing are the primary skills that the students work on. There is much less attention given to speaking and listening. Pronunciation receives little, if any, attention.

8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
The meaning of the target language is made clear by translating it into the students’ native language. The language that is used in class is mostly the students’ native language.

9. How is evaluate on accomplished?
Written tests in which students are asked to translate from their native language to the target language or vice versa are often used. Questions about the foreign culture or question that ask students to apply grammar rules are also common.

10. How does the teacher respond to student errors?
Having the students get the correct answer is considered very important. If students make errors or don’t know an answer, the teacher supplies them with the correct answer.

The Principles of The Direct Method

– Reading in the target language should be taught from the beginning of language instruction; however, the reading skill will be developed through practice with speaking. Language is primarily speech. Culture consists of more than the fine arts (e.g., we observed the students studying geography and cultural values).
– Objects (e.g., realia or pictures) present in the immediate classroom environment should be used to help students understand the meaning.
– The native language should not be used in the classroom.
– The teacher should demonstrate, not explain or translate. It is derisable that students’ make a direct association between the target language and meaning.
– Students should learn to think in the target language as soon as possible. Vocabulary is acquired more naturally if students use it in full sentences, rather than memorizing word lists.
– The purpose of language learning is communication (therefore students need to learn how to ask questions as well as answer them).
– Pronunciation should be worked on right from the beginning of language instruction.
– Self-correction facilitates language learning.
– Lesson should contain some conversational activity – some opportunity for students to use language in real contexts. Students should be encouraged to speak as much as possible.
– Grammar should be taught inductively. There may never be an explicit grammar rule given.
– Writing is an important skill, to be developed from the beginning of language instruction.
– The syllabus is based on situations or topics, not usually on linguistic structures.
– Learning another language also involves learning how speakers of that language live.

Reviewing the principles
1. What are the goals of teachers who use the Direct Method?
Teachers who use the Direct Method intend that students learn how to communicate in the target language. In order to do this successfully, students should learn to think in the target language.

2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
Although the teacher directs the class activities, the students role is less passive than in Grammar-Translation Method. The teacher and the students are more like partners in the teaching/learning process.

3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
Teachers who use the Direct Method believe students need to associate meaning and the target language directly. In order to this, when the teacher introduces a new target language word or phrase, he demonstrates its meaning through the use of realia, pictures, or pantomime; he never translates it into the students’ native language.

4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
The initiation of the interaction goes both ways, from teacher to students and from student to teacher, although the latter is often teacher-directed. Students converse with one another as well.

5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
There are no principles of the method which relate to this area.

6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?
Language is primarily spoken, not written. Therefore, students study common, everyday speech in the target language. They also study culture consisting of the history of the people who speak the target language, the geography of the country or countries where the language is spoken, and information about the daily lives of the speakers of the language.

7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Although work on all four skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) occurs from the start, oral communication is seen as basic. Thus the reading and writing exercises are based upon what the students practice orally first. Pronunciation also receives attention right from the beginning of a course.

8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
The students’ native language should not be used in the classroom.

9. How is evaluate on accomplished?
We didn’t actually see any formal evaluation in the class we observed; however, in the Direct Method, students are asked to use the language, not to demonstrate their knowledge about the language. They are asked to do so using both oral and written skills.

10. How does the teacher respond to student errors?
The teacher, employing various techniques, tries to get students to self-correct whenever possible.

The principles of The Audio-Lingual Method

– Language forms do not occurs by themselves; they occur most naturally within a context.
– The native language and the target language have separate linguistic systems. They should be kept apart so that the students’ native language interferes as little as possible with the studenta’ attempts to acquire the target language.
– One of the language teacher’s major roles is that of a model the target language. Teachers should provide students with a native-speaker-like model. By listening to how it is supposed to sound, students should be able to mimic the model.
– Language learning is a process of habit formation. The more often something is repeated, the stronger the habit and the greater the learning.
– It is important to prevent learners from making errors. Errors lead to the formation of bad habits. When errors do accurs, they should be immediately corrected by the teacher.
– The purpose of language learning is to learn how to use the language to communicate.
– Particular parts of speech occupy particular “slots” in sentences. In order to create new sentences, students must learn which part of speech occupies which slot.
– Positive reinforcement helps the students to develop correct habits.
– Students should learn to respond to both verbal and nonverbal stimuli.
– Each language has a finite number of patterns. Pattern practice helps students to form habits which enable the students to use the patterns.
– Students should “overlearn,” i.e., learn to answer automatically without stopping to think.
– The teachers should be like an orchestra leader-conducting, guiding, and controlling the students’ behavior in the target language.
– The learning of a foreign language should be the same as the acquisition of the native language. We do not need to memorize rules in order to use our native language. The rules necessary to use the target language will be figured out or induced from examples.
– The major challenge of foreign language teaching is getting students to overcome the habits of their native language. A comparison between the native and target language will tell the teacher in what areas her students will probably experience difficulty.
– Speech is more basic to language than the written form. The “natural order” – the order children follow when learning their native language – of skill acquisition is: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
– Language cannot be separated from culture. Culture is not only literature and the arts, but also the everyday behavior of the people who use the target language. One of the teacher’s responsibilities is to present information about that culture.

Reviewing the principles
1. What are the goals of teachers who use the Audio-Lingual Method?
Teachers want their students to be able to use the target language communicatively. In order to do this, they believe students need to overlearn the target language, to learn to use it automatically without stopping to think. Their students achieve this by forming new habits in the target language and overcoming the old habits of their native language.

2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
The teacher is an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language behavior of her students. She also is responsible for providing her students with a good model for imitation.

3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
New vocabulary and structures are presented through dialogs. The dialogs are learned through imitatition and repetition, backward build-up, chain, subtitution, transformation, and question-and-answer) are conducted based upon the patterns present in the dialog.

4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
There is student-to-student interaction in chain drill or when students take different roles in dialogs, but this interaction is teacher-directed. Most of the interaction is between teacher and students and is initiated by the teacher.

5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
There are no principles of the method that relate to this area.

6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?
The view of language in the Audio-Lingual Method has been influenced by descriptive linguists. Every language is seen as having its own unique system. The system is comprised of several different levels; phonological, morphological, and syntactic. Each level has its own descriptive patterns. Culture consist of the everyday behavior and lifestyle of the target language speakers.

7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
The structures of the language are emphasized over all the other areas. The syllabus is typically a structural one, with the structures for any particular unit included in the new dialog. Vocabulary is also contextualized within the dialog. It is, however, limited since the emphasis is placed on the acquisition of the patterns of the language. The natural order of skills presentation is adhered to: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The oral/aural skills receive most of the attention. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning, often by students working in language laboratories on discriminating between members of minimal pairs.

8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
The habits of students’ native language are thought to interfere with the students attempts to master the target language. Therefore, the target language is used in the classroom, not the students native language. A contrastive analysis between the students native language and the target language will reveal where a teacher shuold expect the most interference.

9. How is evaluate on accomplished?
The answer to this question is not obvious because we didn’t discrete-point in nature, that is, each question on the test would focus on only one point of the language at a time. Students might be asked to distinguish between word in a minimal pair.

10. How does the teacher respond to student errors?
Student errors are to be avoided if at all possible through the teacher’s awareness of where the students will have difficulty and restriction of what they are taught to say.

The Principles of The Silent Way

– The teacher should start with something the students already know and build from that to the unknown. Language share a number of features, sounds being the most basic.
– Language learners are intelligent and bring with them the experience of already learning a language. The teachers should give only what help is necessary.
– Language is not learned by repeating after a model. Students need to develop their own “inner criteria” for correctness – to trust and to be responsible for their own production in the target language.
– Students’ actions can tell the teacher whether or not they have learned.
– Students should learn to rely on each other and themselves.
– The teacher works with the students while the students work on the language.
– The teacher makes use of what students already know. The more the teacher does for the students what they can do for themselves, the less they will do for themselves.
– Learning involves transferring what one knows to new contexts.
– Reading is worked on from the beginning but follows from what students have learned to say.
– Silence is a tool. It helps to foster autonomy, or the exercise of initiative. It also removes the teacher from the center of attention so he can listen to and work with students.
– Meaning is made clear by focusing students’ perceptions, not through translation.
– Students can learn from one another. The teacher’s silence encourages group cooperation.
– If the teachers praises (or criticizes) students, they will be less self-reliant. The teacher’s actions can interfere with students’ developing their own criteria.
– Errors are important and necessary to learning. They show the teacher where things are unclear.
– If students are simply given answers, rather than being allowed to self-correct, they won’t retain them.
– Students need to learn to listen to themselves.
– At the beginning, the teacher needs to look for progress, not perfection. Learning takes place in time. Students learn at different rates.
– A teacher’s silence frees the teacher to closely observe the students’ behavior.
– Students learn they must give the teacher their attention in order not to miss what he says. Student attention is a key to learning.
– Students should receive a great deal of meaningful practice without repetition.
– The elements of the language are introduced logically, expanding upon what students already know.
– Students gain autonomy in the language by exploring it and by making choices.
– Language is for self-expression.
– The teacher can gain valuable information from student feedback; for example, he can learn what to work on next. Students learn how to accept responsibility for their own learning.
– Some learning takes place naturally as we sleep. Students will naturally work on the day’s lesson then.
– The syllabus is composed of linguistic structures.
– The structures of the syllabus are not arranged in a linear fashion, but rather are constantly being recycled.
– The skills of speaking, reading, and writing reinforce one another.

Reviewing the principles
1. What are the goals of teachers who use the Silent Way?
Students should be able to use the language for self-expression-to express their thoughts, perceptions, and feelings. In order to do this, they need to develop independence from the teacher, to develop their own inner criteria for correctness.

2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
The teacher is a technician or engineer. “Only the learner can do the learning,” but the teacher, relying on what his students already know, can give what help is necessary, focus the students’ perceptions, “force their awareness,” and “provide exercises to insure their facility” with the language. The role of the students is to make use of what they know, to free themselves of any obstacles that would interfere with giving their most attention to the learning task, and to actively engage in exploring the language.

3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
Students begin their study of the language through is basic building blocs, its sounds. These are introduced through a language specific sound-color chart. Relying on what sounds students already know from their knowledge of their native language, teachers lead their students to associate the sounds of the target language, with particular colors. Later, these same colors are used to help students learn the spelling that correspond to the sounds (through the color-coded Fidel Chart) and how to read and pronounce words properly (through the color-coded word charts).

4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
For much of the student-teacher interaction, the teacher is silent. He is still very active, however-setting up situations to “force awareness,” listening attentively to students’ speech, and silently working with them on their production. When the teacher does speak it is to give clues, not to model the language. Student-student verbal interaction is desirable (students can learn from one another) and is therefore encouraged. The teacher’s silence is one way to do this.

5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
The teacher constantly observes the students. When their feelings interfere, the teacher tries to find ways for the students to overcome them.

6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?
Languages of the world share a number of features. Howeve, each language also has its own unique reality, or spirit, since it is the expression of a particulair group of people.

7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
Since the sounds are basic to any language, pronunciation is worked on from the beginning. It is important that student acquire the melody of the language. There is also a focus on the structures of the language, although explicit grammar rules may never be supplied. Vocabulary is somewhat restricted at first.

8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
Meaning is made clear by focusing the students’ perceptions, not by translation. The students’ native language can, however, be used to give instructions when necessary, to help a student improve his or her pronunciation, for instance. The native language is also used (at least at beginning levels of proficiency) during the feedback sessions.

9. How is evaluate on accomplished?
Although the teacher may never give a formal test, he assesses student learning all the time. Since “teaching is subordinated to learning,” the teacher must be responsive to immediate learning needs.

10. How does the teacher respond to student errors?
Student errors are seen as a natural, indispensable part of the learning process. Errors are inevitable since the students are encouraged to explore the language.

Thinking about the experience of Suggestopedia

1. Learning is facilitated in a relaxed, cmfortable environment.
2. A student can learn from what is present in the environment, even if his attention is not directed to it (“Peripheral Learning”).
3. If the student trusts and respects the teacher’s authority, he will accept and retain information better.
4. The teacher should recognize that learners bring certain psychological barriers with them to the learning situation. She should attempt to “desuggest” these.
5. Activating the learners’ imagination will aid learning.
6. The teacher attempts to increase her students’ confidence that they will be successful learners. the more confident the student feel, the better they will learn.
7. Assuming a new identity enhances students’ feeling of security and allows them to be more open. They feel less inhibited since their performance is really that of a different person.
8. The dialog that the students learn contains language they can use immediately.
9. When their attention is off the form of the language, and on the process of communicating, students will learn best.
10. The teacher should integrate indirect positive suggestions (“there is no limit to what you can do”) into the learning situation.
11. The teacher should present and explain the grammar and vocabulary, but not dwell on them.
12. One way that meaning is made clear is through mother tongue translation.
13. Communication takes place on “two planes”: on one the linguistic message is encoded; and on the other are factors which influence the linguistic message. On the conscious plane, the learner attends to the language; on the subconscious plane, the music suggest that learning is easy and pleasant. When there is a unity between conscious and subconscious, learning is enhanced.
14. A pseudo-passive state, such as the state one experiences when listening to a concert, is ideal for over-coming psychological barriers and for taking advantage of learning potential.
15. Dramatization is a particularly valueable way of playfully activating the material. Fantasy reduces barriers to learning.
16. The fine arts (music, art, and drama) enable suggestions to reach the subconscious. The arts should, therefore, be integrated as much as possible into the teaching process.
17. The teacher should help the students “activate” the material to which they have been exposed. The means of doing this should be varied so as to avoid repetition as much as possible. Novelty aids acquisition.
18. Music and movement reinforce the linguistic material. It is desirable that students achieve a state of “infantilization” having a childlike attitude so that they will be more open to learning. If they trust the teacher, they will reach this state more easily.
19. Errors are to be tolerated, the emphasis being on content, not form. The teacher should use the form a little later so the students will hear it used correctly.

Reviewing the principles of Suggestopedia
1. What are the goals of teachers who use Suggestopedia?
Teachers hope accelerate the process by which students learn to use a foreign language for everyday communication. In order to do this, more of students’ mental powers must be tapped. This is accomplished by desuggesting the psychological barriers learners bring with them to the learning situation.

2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
The teacher is the authority in the classroom. In order for the method to be successful, the students must trust and respect her. The students will retain information better from someone in whom they have confidence since they will be more responsive to her “desuggesting” their limitations and suggesting how easy it will be for them to succeed.

3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
A suggestopedic course is conducted in a classroom in which students are as comfortable as possible. Ideally, easy chairs, soft lighting, and music are all available to contribute to a relaxing environment. Posters displaying grammatical information about the the target language are hung around the room in order to take advantage of students’ peripheral learning. The posters are changed every few weeks.

4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of students and with individuals right from the beginning of a language course. Initially, the students can only respond nonverbally or with a few target language words they have practiced. Later the students have more control of the target language and can respond more appropriately and even initiate interaction themselves. Students interact with each other from the beginning in various activities directed by the teacher.

5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
A great deal of attention is given to students’ feelings in this method. One of fundamental principles of the method is that if students are relaxed and confident, they will not need to try hard to learn the language. It will just come naturally and easilly.

6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?
Language is the first of two planes in the two-plane process of communication. In the second plane are the factors which influence the linguistic message.
The culture which students learn concerns the everyday life of people who speak the language. The use of fine arts is also common in Suggestopedic classes.

7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
Vocabulary is emphasized. Claims about the success of the method often focus on the large number of words that can be acquired. Grammar is dealt with explicitly but minimally. In fact, it is believed that students will learn best if their conscious attention is focused, not on the language forms, but on using the language.
Speaking communicatively is emphasized. Students also read the target language (for example, dialogs) and write (for example, imaginative compositions).

8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
Native language translation is used to make the meaning of the dialog clear. The teacher also uses the mother tongue in class when necessary. As the course proceeds, the teacher uses the native language less and less.

9. How is evaluation accomplished?
Evaluation usually is conducted on students’ normal in-class performance and not through formal tests, which would threaten the relaxed atmosphere considered essential for accelerated learning.

10. How does the teacher respond to student error?
At least at the beginning levels, errors are not corrected immediately since the emphasis is on students communicating their intended meaning. When errors of form do occur, the teacher uses the form correctly later on during class.

Thinking about the experience of Community Language Learning

Whole-person learning means that teachers consider not only their students’ feeling and intellect, but also have some understanding of the relationship among students’ physical reactions, their instinctive protective reaction and their desire to learn.
1. Building a relationship with and among students is very important.
2. Any new learning experinece can be threatening. When students have an idea of what will happen in each activity, they often feel more secure. People learn best when they feel secure.
3. Language is for communication.
4. The superior knowledge and power of the teacher can be threatening. If the teacher does not remain in the front of the classroom, the threat is reduced and the students’ learning is facilititated. Also this fosters interaction among students, rather than from student to teacher.
5. The teacher should be sensitive to students’ limitations and not over-whelm them with more than they can handle.
6. Students feel more secure when they know the limit of an activity.
7. Teacher and students are whole persons.
8. Guided by the knowledge that each learner is unique, the teacher creates an accepting atmosphere. Learners feel free to lower their defenses and the learning experience becomes less threatening.
9. The teacher “counsels” the students. He shows them he is really listening to them and understands what theyare saying. By understanding how students feel, the teacher can help students to overcome their negative feelings, which might otherwise block their learning.
10. The students’ native language is used to make the meaning clear. Students feel more secure when they understand everything.
11. The teacher should take the responsibility for clearly structuring activities in the most appropriate way possible for successfull completion of an activity.
12. Learning at the beginning stages is facilitated if students attend to one task at a time.
13. The teacher encourages student initiative and independence.
14. Students need quiet reflection time in order to learn.
15. Students learn best when they have a choice in what they practice. Students develop an inner wisdom about where they need to work. If students feel in control, they can take more responsibility for their own learning.
16. Students need to learn to discriminate; for example, in perceiving the similarities and differences among the target language forms.
17. In groups, students can begin to feel a sense of community and can learn from each other as well as the teacher. Cooperative, not competition, is encouraged.
18. Teachers should work in a non-threatening way with what the learner has produced.
19. Developing a community among the class members builds trust and can help to reduce the threat of the new learning situation.
20. Learning tends not to take place when the material is too new or, conversely, too familiar. Retention will best take place somewhere in between novelty and familiarity.
21. In additionto reflecting on the language, students reflect on what they have experienced. In this way, they have an opportunity to learn about their own learning as well as learning about the language.
22. In the beginning stages, the “syllabus” is designed primarily by the students. Students are more willing to learn when they have created the material themselves.

Reviewing the principles of Community Language Learning
1. What are the goals of teachers who use of Community Language Learning Method?
Teachers who use the Community Language Learning Method want their students to learn how to use the target language communicately.

2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
The teacher’s intial role is that of a conselor. This does not mean that the teacher is a therapist, or that the teacher does not teaching.

3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
In a Stage I class, which is what we observed, students typically have a conversation in their native language. The teacher helps them express what they want to say by giving them the target language translation in chunks. These chunks are recorded, and when they are replayed, it sounds like a fairly fluid conversation.

4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
The nature of student-teacher interaction in the Community Language Learning changes within the lesson and over time. Sometimes the students are aggressive, as when they are having a conversation.

5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
Responding to the student’s feeling is consideredvery important in Conseling-Learning. One regular activity is inviting students to comment on how they feel while the teacher understands. By showing students he understands how they feel, the teacher can help them overcome negative feelings that might othewise block their learning.

6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?
Language is for communication. Curran writes that “learning is persons,” that both teacher and student agree to trust one another and the learning process.

7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
In the early stages, typically the students design the syllabus, in that they decide what they want to be able to say in the target language. Later on the teacher might also work with published textbooks.

8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
Students’ security is initially enhanced by using their native language. Where possible. literal native language equivalents are given to the target language words that have been transcribed.

9. How is evaluation accomplished?
That teachers would encourage their students to self-evaluate to look at their own learning and to become aware of their own progress.

10. How does the teacher respond to student error?
Teachers should work with what the learner has produced in a nontreatening way. One way of doing this is for the teacher to repeat correctly what the student has said incorrectly, without calling further attention to the error.

Thinking about the experience of The Total Physical Response Method
1. Meaning in the target language can often be conveyed through actions. Memory is activated through learner response.
2. The students’ understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking.
3. Students can initially learn one part of the language rapidly by moving their bodies.
4. The imperative is a powerful linguistic device through which the teacher can direct student behavior.
5. Student can learn through observing actions as well as by performing the actions themselves.
6. It is very important that students feel successful. Feeling of success and low anxiety facilities learning.
7. Students should not be made to memorize fixed routines.
8. Correction should be carried out in an unobtrusive manner.
9. Students must develop flexibility in understanding novel combinations of target language chunks. They need to understand more than the exact sentences used in training. Novelty is also motivating.
10. Language learning is more effective when it is fun.
11. Spoken language should be emphasized over written language.
12. Students will begin to speak when they are ready.
13. Students are expected to make errors when they first begin speaking. Teachers should be tolerant of them. Work on the fine details of the language should be post-poned until students have become somewhat proficient.

Reviewing the principles of The Total Physical Response Method
1. What are the goals of teachers who use of The Total Physical Response Method?
Teachers who use The Total Physical Response Method believe in the importance of having their students enjoy their experience in learning to communicate in a foreign language.

2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
Initially, the teacher is the director of all student behavior. The students are imitators of her nonverbal model.

3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
The first phase of a lesson is one of modelling. The instructor issues commands to a few students, then performs the action with them. In the phase, these same students demonstrate that they can understand the commands by performing them alone. The observers also have an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding.

4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
The teacher is interacts with the whole group of students and with individual students. Initially the interaction is characterized by the teacher speaking and the students responding nonverbally. Later on, the students become more verbal and the teacher responds nonverbally.

5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
It is important that there not be too much modeling, but the students not to be too rushed either. Feelings of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.

6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?
Just as with the acquisition of the native language, the oral modality is primary. Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively.

7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
Grammatical structures and vocabulary are emphasized over other language areas. These are embedded within imperatives. The imperatives are single words and multi-word chunks. One reason for the use of imperatives is their frequency of occurrence in the speech directed at young children learning their mother tongue.

8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
The method is usually introduced in the students’ native language. After the introduction, rarely would the mother tongue be used. Meaning is made clear through body movements.

9. How is evaluation accomplished?
Teachers will know immediately whether or not students understand by observing their students’ actions. Formal evaluations can be conducted simply by commanding individual students to perform a series of actions. As students become more advanced, their performance in skits they have created can become the basis for evaluation.

10. How does the teacher respond to student error?
It is expected that students will make errors when they first begin speaking. Teachers should be tolerant of them and only correct major errors. Even these should be corrected unobtrusively. As students get more advanced, teacher can “fine tune” – correct more minor errors.

Thinking about the experience of The Communicative Approach
1. Whenever possible, “authentic language” – language as it is used in a real context-should be introduced
2. Being able to figure out the speaker’s or writer’s intentions is part of being communicatively competent.
3. The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study.
4. One function can have many different linguistic forms. Since the focus of the course is on real language use, a variety of linguistic forms are presented together.
5. Students should work with language at the discourse or supra sentential (above the sentence) level. They must learn about cohesion and coherence, those properties of language which bind the sentences together.
6. Games are important because they have certain features in common with real communicative events there is a purpose to the exchange.
7. Students should be given an opportunity to express their ideas and opinions.
8. Errors are tolerated and seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills. Students’ success is detemined as much by their fluency as it is by their accuracy.
9. One of the teacher’s major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communication.
10. Communicative interaction encourages cooperative relationship among students. It gives students an opportunity to work on negotiating meaning.
11. The social context of the communicative event is essential in giving meaning to the utterances.
12. Learning to use language forms approriately is an important part of communicative competence.
13. The teacher acts as an advisor during communcative activities.
14. In communicating, a speaker has a choice not only about what to say, but also how to say it.
15. The grammar and vocabulary that the students learn follow from the function, situational context, and the roles of the interlocutors.
16. Students should be given opportunities to develop strategies for interpreting language as it is actually used by native speakers.

Reviewing the principles of The Communicative Approach
1. What is the goal of teachers who use of The Communicative Approach?
The goal is to have one’s students become communicatively competent. While this has been the stated goal of many of the other methods, in The Communicative Approach the nation of what it takes to be communicatively competent is much expanded.

2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
The teacher is a facilitator of his students’ learning. As such he has many roles to fulfill. He is a manager of classroom activities.

3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
The most obvious characteristic of The Communicative Approach is that almost everything that is done with a communicative intent. Students use the language a great deal through communicative activities such as games, role-plays, and problem-solving tasks.

4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
The teacher is the initiator of the activities, but he does not always himself interact with the students. Sometimes he is a co-communicator, but more often he establishes situation that prompt communication between and among the students.

5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
Student security is enhanced by the many opportunities for cooperative interactions with their fellow students and the teacher.

6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?
Language is for communication. Linguistic comperence, the knowledge of forms and meanings is, however, just one part of communicative comperence.

7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
Language functions are emphasized over forms. Typically, although not always, a functional syllabus is used. A variety of forms are introduced for each function.

8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
The students’ native language has no particular role in The Communicative Approach. The target language should be used not only during communicative activities, but also, for example, in explaining the activities to the students or in assigning homework.

9. How is evaluation accomplished?
A teacher evaluates not only his students’ accuracy, but also their fluency. The student who has the most control of the structures and vocabulary is not always the best communicator.

10. How does the teacher respond to student error?
Errors of form are tolerated and are seen as natural outcome of the development of communication skill. Students can have limited linguistic knowledge and still be successful communicators.

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